Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Business & Human resource

In today’s competitive world, where there is increased competition in the industry. Human resource management and recruitment has proven to be the most effective tool that provides with a competitive advantage, which cannot be matched or countered by any other competitor. Human resource of any company is the key to success and its sustainable development in the coming years. Therefore it is essential for all the corporations to take into account the immense power of their human resource and to make genuine efforts in order to retain them. For that the main area to be targeted is motivation.In that case it is necessary to evaluate the psyche of all the employees. Motivation is the driving force that makes a person achieves the desired goals in an affective manner. In the past years a lot of research work has been done on the topic of motivation. Because only if a person is willing to perform any task, he will be motivated to do it. As depicted by the saying that one can take hi s horse to the water but cannot force him to drink it unless he wants to. Such is the phenomenon of motivation. Motivation has a very prominent role in the field of business. As all humans are complex beings. All of them have different requirements.It is extremely important for the firm to set up such an environment that promotes the talent of the employees and utilize their potential in an efficient manner. In order to keep the employees intact and promote an organizational culture which is healthy. It is required that the leadership carefully works on job design. Job design is the process in which different elements are join together to form a job in which individual as well as organizational requirements are kept in mind . While designing a job description it is very important that they company is aware of and concentrates on the fact that what they want to achieve.If the employees are aware of their job description and are provided with the right resources and culture, the compa ny is able to achieve its goals. And also maintains the standards at the same time. In such a situation employees are motivated to put in their best and to take their work to further level of excellence. Motivation is one factor that is extremely difficult to attain. But on the other hand those firms that have been successful in motivating their employees have also earned value addition form their talented and skillful employees.Most of these researches of motivation in management have been derived from the discipline of psychology. Since psychology is the study of human mind and behavior. These theories have proved to be very effective in use in all the fields of management. A few of these theories related to motivation are described bellow. Abraham Maslow was a famous psychologist and was also known as the father of modern management. He in his article â€Å"A Theory of Human Motivation† formulated a framework of human motivation and drives on the basis of their needs†¦ The table below depicts the hierarchy of these human needs in order.1) Psychological needs: they are recognized as the primary needs of every individual that are essential to be fulfilled. They are required for survival. They comprise of necessities like food, shelter, sleep, water etc. 2) Safety Needs: as soon as the psychological needs are met, ones attention is diverted towards fulfilling the security needs. Every person has some insecurities may it be physical or emotional. According to Maslow until and unless these needs are addressed and resolved a person would feel threatened and would not climb up any further on the pyramid.3) Social Needs: this is the first level of higher level of needs. It involves the interaction and relationship with a society, family or social group. 4) Esteem Needs: esteem needs include self-respect, self worth, recognition and achievement. 5) Self-Actualization needs: realizing personal potential, self-fulfillment, seeking personal growth and peak experiences Maslow’s ideas regarding the hierarchy of needs provides information about workplace environment that encourages and enables employees to attain their potential that is self actualization.Managers can use these to encourage personal growth and development. Douglas McGregor’s Theory X and Y were a basis of development of positive management styles and techniques. And prove to be helpful in development of organizational development and culture within the organization. It clearly defines two different methods of management control. One is the classic and conventional authoritative management style and the other is the modern a participative style. Companies’ can chose either of them but theory Y or the participative style has been more effective in motivating the workforceBecause these theories help us understand the psyche of human mind which in turn can be helpful in developing the job description. And if the job design would be good enough than this would motivate employees to work harder and bring in innovation. In this world where nothing is stagnant and environment changes, such steps are all effective in helping a company cope with these changes and to conquer new market with fresh ideas. All these theories are a guiding force to manage employees and their talent. Motivation is essential at all levels.It is a complex combination of several factors. Motivation leads to efficiency, profits and loyalty. It can make the impossible possible. Employees need to feel respected and valued in the company. This gives them a sense of belonging. Adopting sensible job designs for the workforce can only bring about this change. It is the responsibility of the leadership to make such job descriptions that help utilize the potentials. Theory Y shows that management styles empower and have a significant impact on workforce motivation.Works Cited Abraham Maslow. (n. d. ). Maslow Hierarchy of Needs. November 14, 2008. Retrieved from: < http:// www. abraham-maslow. com/m_motivation/Hierarchy_of_Needs. asp> Businessballs. com. (n. d. ). Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. November 14, 2008. Retrieved from: < http://www. businessballs. com/maslow. htm> Job Access. (n. d. ). Job description and design. November 14, 2008. Retrieved from:

Integration of Aristotle’s Four Causes and Ego Psychology Essay

Ego Psychology Theory is based on Freud’s structure of mind model of identity, ego, and superego elaborated in more detail. Individuals have different ego controlling between primitive drives and realities. Individuals always deal with identities, drives and egos. However, if one has good control with ego, they can express their desire, drives and morals in realistic and socially appropriate ways. If failed, one confronts difficulties such as conflict with inner self and loss of mature interpersonal relationship. However, throughout lifetime, individuals change their feelings and behaviors to better fit their needs or minimize their conflict between primitive drives and realities. The material cause for ego psychology is identity and ego. Individuals are born with primitive drives, sexual desires, and egos which enable to organize their identity, drives and synthesize judgment, defined as decisions toward another in feelings, or to be aware of drives that affects feelings in accord with reality. In other words, ego can give a right direction for or control identity drives, whether it is satisfied or not in light of reality. The formal cause of ego psychology is ego development which is follows by means of the individual’s needs, e. g. , affiliation with others, learning, etc. Hartmann says that we must develop â€Å"autonomous ego-development† (Hartmann, 1958, p, 101). The ego must be understood in relation with the individual’s needs and drives, traits, expectations, and values. According to Hartmann, people’s defense mechanism develop their ego. Hartmann pointed out that â€Å"the defense processes may simultaneously serve both the control of instinctual drive and adaptation to the external world. † (Hartmann, 1958, p. 51) The efficient cause is adaptation – â€Å"reality mastering† and a reciprocated relationship between an individual and his or her environment. The outcome of successful adaptation implies â€Å"fitting together† (Hartmann 1958, p, 36). If individuals overcome their conflicts, they are lead to their functions which are more or less closely related to the perceive reality. Therefore, successful adaptation embeds an individual in an environment. Also, it solves conflict among individual needs, capacities, and their environments due to the complicated tendencies of defensive egos. In early stages the ego is focused on differentiating itself from others and on affirming its separate existence though expression of drives. Later, the individuals begin to learn rules of conduct to follow in order to avoid group criticism (Martin,1981). The impact of interpersonal and environmental factors is thought to be crucial to the evolution of mature ego functions during the lifelong developmental process. The final cause of ego psychology is to find better adaptation and sustain ego function with regard to individual needs to adapt to their environments, drives, traits, and expectations. Other manifestations of social functioning problems and self regulation and control of drives affect other people’s perceptions is central to the development of an individual’s behaviors and are appropriate in certain circumstances. People, because of their inevitable and requisite relationship with the world, are subject to change their attitudes, behaviors, and even their egos in order to cope with the changes and demands of other people around them and in the group they belong in. References Irving M. Rosen. (1968) Ego psychology of the adult years.Journal of Religion and Health, Volume 7, Number 3 PDF (243. 6 KB) Retrieved May 2, 2008, from SpringerLink database. Hartmann, Heinz. (1958) Ego psychology and the problem of adaptation. New York, NY: International Universities Press. Martin A, James. (2000) Ego psychology notes. Retrieved Apr. 2, 2008, from http://www. brynmawr. edu/Acads/GSSW/jam/switr/991415. htm Martin, Grotjahn. (1981) The therapeutic group process in the light of developmental ego Psychology. Group, Volume 5. Retrieved May 2, 2008, from SpringerLink database.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

How to Write a Job Application Essay

Potential employers often want more than cover letters and resumes; they want to know how well you express yourself, handle spontaneous tasks and follow directions. If you want to nail your job application essay, don’t rush. Take your time and double-check your work. Remember without making a good impression on paper, you won’t get the chance to make an impression in person. Follow Instructions Pay close attention to the instructions. Employers often use job application essays, in part, to determine whether you’ll be a good fit for their company. If you go off-topic in your essay, they’ll know without meeting you that you have trouble following directions. As you prepare your essay, make sure you answer the question they’re asking no more, no less. Also, stick with the parameters set, as far as the length, formatting and font. If no parameters are set, try to make your essay no longer than one page. Your potential employer wants to read an essay, not a term paper. Brainstorm Take notes on your essay before you begin writing the actual draft. Perhaps you have several ideas about how to begin, or several angles from which you’d like to approach the essay topic. Use your brainstorm session to try out different ideas and find the one that suits you best. Outline Your Essay As the architect of your essay, you’ll need a solid blueprint. Use a few sentences apiece to summarize your thesis statement, your introductory paragraph, your supporting paragraphs, and your conclusion. Use the outline like a map to determine whether your essay is headed in the right direction. Ask whether your introduction supports your thesis. Do the supporting paragraphs support the introduction? Does the conclusion summarize the main points? Looking at the bare bones of your essay will help you understand what works and what doesn’t, and what needs to be added or taken away. Be Specific Make clear and concise statements in your essay to keep your potential employer’s interest. Refrain from using vague phrases. For example, instead of writing, â€Å"I’m a good employee and I love to work,† write, â€Å"I showed that I love to work when I served as chairperson for ABC Company’s weekend initiative — we successfully lobbied to have the offices opened during the weekends, so employees can catch up on paperwork and meetings without the distraction of clients calling.† Show and Prove Your job application essay should provide clear examples to back up each of your claims. Instead of, â€Å"I’m a great salesperson,† say, â€Å"In my last position, I had the highest record in my entire region for three consecutive quarters.† Instead of, â€Å"I’m really good with people,† say, â€Å"Due to my outstanding service skills, I had the highest number of repeat customers in the district. People requested me by name.† Be Professional Even if you are given creative license, recognize that this essay is your potential employer’s first glimpse of your work persona. Don’t put anything in the essay that you wouldn’t want to say to her face. Treat the essay like an interview and write accordingly.

Monday, July 29, 2019

Research an anilyze an article that pertains my research proposa

Research an anilyze an that pertains my research proposa - Article Example The purpose was to answer questions about humor. These questions were: â€Å"How effective is humor in the foreign language classroom?†, â€Å"How are concepts of humor in the different cultural contexts learned by foreign language students?†, â€Å"What role do theories of humor play when studying the use of humor in the world language classroom?† (p. 400). The purpose of this article was to give information about the use of humor in the classroom and to answer these questions. The authors studied the research in â€Å"education, linguistics, and psychology† (p. 400) to answer the questions. Although the hypothesis was not written as a hypothesis, it was clear that the authors assumed that the use of humor in the classroom would be beneficial to both students and teachers. They also thought that some forms of humor could be easily identified and therefore they could create a profile of humor that could be used in any classroom. This was a directional hypothesis because the authors could use humor in the classroom in any way they wanted to see what would be the most effective. The authors clearly stated that research has not been done on the effects of humor in the classroom so they relied on journal articles about humor in general. They took articles from â€Å"education, linguistics, and psychology† (p. 400) in order to give them a broader idea of how humor would work in a foreign language classroom. They also went into classrooms and observed how humor was being used and the response that the teacher received from the students. The subjects involved were students and teachers in whole world classrooms. The authors relied heavily on their observations and the body of research that was already presented. The authors did not state how they arrived at the subjects. The authors set out to find ways to use humor in the foreign language classroom that would benefit all teachers

Sunday, July 28, 2019

'Rebel Without a Cause' Film Review Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

'Rebel Without a Cause' Film Review - Essay Example In order to discern the position, it is important to look at the outstanding question that Jim Stark ask his father while considering the embodiment of manhood; â€Å"What can you do when you have to be a man?† (Ray II). When asking the question, Jim expects a clear and conclusive solution, but the father’s inability to give a precise answer points in a way to the question of masculinity among the characters in the movie. People wonder why there is not one definite answer explaining who a real man is. Is it that Mr. Stark is not sure of what it takes to be a man? Maybe there is more than one way of answering the question. One plausible thing in this scenario is that the society in which the movie is set provides only one standard model of manhood; that of a tough, hyper-masculine male. There seems to be numerous instances in the movie during which this assertion of a hyper-masculine male is ideologically shifted and distorted. For instance, when Jim gets back home, he finds his dad rushing to bring food to Jim’s mother afore she awakens. Jim becomes disgusted at just how diminished his father’s masculinity has become and begged him to stop getting submissive. It is clear that Jim’s disgust stems from his worries regarding the apparent inversion of gender roles. It is plausible in Jim’s character that something urgent needs to be done in order to re-define the true meaning of masculinity, and hence manhood. This explains why he cannot accept his father’s submissiveness to the mother. Out of frustration, he grabs his father and pushes him across the room. This action seems to encompass Jim’s desire to re-awaken the â€Å"man† in his father. According to Jim, the father has become an emasculated patriarch in this matriarchal society. When one turns to Frank’s life in the movie, it is notable that he has control over his activities, leaving him with little room to assert his masculinity. Indeed, his masculinity has

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Wind Energy in India Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Wind Energy in India - Essay Example One reason that has seen this form of natural energy dwindle is its nonrenewable nature. In this regard, humankind cannot renew natural gases and reuse them once they consume these resources. In addition, humankind has overexploited natural gases for economic gains in order to develop important sectors of the economy. These two factors have contributed to the depletion and the diminishing nature of this natural form of energy. Consequently, these depleting resources have necessitated humankind’s search of other sources of energy that were long-term and renewable. One such source of energy is the energy tapped from the wind and the sun, also known as wind energy and solar energy respectively. In line with this, nations have realized that these two forms of energy are renewable, and their use enhances a safe environment. All nations, despite their economic empowerment, have realized the importance role of wind and solar energy in meeting their energy demands. India is one of the nations of the world that has identified the important role of wind in producing energy. As a result, the country has made substantial investments in order to ensure that it tapped energy from wind to enhance its chances of meeting its national energy needs. Hence, this expose elucidates on the aspects that have enabled the use of wind energy in India. In addition, the expose will investigate any existing benefits and detrimental effects resulting from the use of wind energy in India. Finally, it is important to investigate the potential use of wind energy in India and its effects on energy or pollution situation over the world due to the ability of other sources of energy to cause pollution and affect the energy reserves due to their continued use. India is one of the countries that have the highest population. In addition, the economy of the country has been growing at an astronomical rate. In effect, demand for energy to sustain this growth is high with the country looking for o ther sources of energy rather than relying on the conventional sources of energy (Invest India). In addition, the country realized the importance of ensuring energy security, reducing the intensity of the density of carbon resulting from the use of nonrenewable energy, and reducing the adverse effects of natural gases use in the environment. To achieve the objectives, India realized that nonrenewable source of energy, with wind energy being the principal source, was a crucial way of achieving energy security, reducing the levels of carbon resulting from the use of nonrenewable energy, and improving a clean environment from the use of wind energy, which is a clean form of energy (Sargsyan et al.). In a 2001 census by India’s Ministry of Power, only 496,365 villages out of 593,732 were supplied with electricity power, which put the per capita consumption of energy in the country at 639 kWh making it one of the lowest in the world (Sargasyan et al. 2). In effect, a big proportio n of the country’s population cannot access the national power grid. One of the reasons leading to the failure to access the national power grid regards to the cost of power with most forms of natural energy being naturally expensive. Sargasyan et al. also noted that the country’s reliance on conventional forms of energy contributed to power shortages since these conventional sources were unreliable (2). Hence, the opportunity costs arising from diversifying to other sources of energy was high, which necessitated the need to identify other sources of

Friday, July 26, 2019

Psychology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Psychology - Essay Example The people of age range from 25 to 55 years will be the units of analysis for the present study. The questionnaires should be delivered to the respondents through mail and e-mail, along with instruction page for filling the questionnaire. The research instrument will comprise of six questions, and the respondents would be requested to return the same after replying to all the questions. After the gathering of data, it would be compiled in tabular form in order to interpret the results and compile the findings, on the basis of which the suggestions would be made. Introduction Myths and misconceptions maintain imperative significance in the discipline of psychology. It has aptly been observed that people just believe in a statement provided it has been supported with the so called notion. Similarly, since majority of the individuals sticks to traditions, customs and conventions, they view it hard to refute the theory has been in vogue for the last many years. Consequently, the same not ion is accepted to be true without making any investigation of the source from where it has been extracted or cited. For instance, Freud’s Oedipus complex theory, presented in the background of Sophocles’ play Oedipus the King, has been taken as a reality that the children have sexual attraction towards the parent of his/her opposite gender. Somehow, Kohut believes that the story’s most significant genetic feature is that Oedipus was a rejected child and a replacement is needed for the Oedipus myth. (Leaming et al., 2009) Moreover, it is a universally accepted perception that women appear to be more emotional and sentimental than men, and always prefer their feelings to intellect while making decisions in life. However, the experiences of real life counteract the very myth by nullifying it through researches, which state that observing of intellect or feelings has no strong association with the gender of the observer. Similarly, it is an extensively established myth, in the light of the theory articulated by 20th century American psychologist William James, that an overwhelming proportion of the individuals use up to 10% of his brain power throughout his life. Thus, 90% of the brain power remains unconsumed altogether. Somehow, no scientific research method or tool is available to endorse the same notion on humans. Consequently, myth has obtained the status of a proved theory, which is vehemently believed by the people without discrimination. Similarly, the people see eye to eye with the myth that expressing one’s anger through words is extremely supportive in mitigating the annoyance and thus turn the person cool and calm subsequently. It is therefore the therapists and counselors used to suggest the use of some object to be kicked and battered for releasing one’s anger. As Psychology Today (1983) asked, "If you could secretly push a button and thereby eliminate any person with no repercussions to yourself, would you press t hat button?" 69% of responding males said yes, 56% of women. However, in real life, people seldom take killing the other into serious consideration, and their anger calm down within moments or minutes. It is therefore the same myth has been counteracted with the latest theory that anger is sure to perish

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Behind my instrument Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Behind my instrument - Essay Example What is meant by this is the fact that instrumental music ultimately came to be a type of music that was played in the absence of voice. Although dissertation length response would necessarily be required with regards to determining specifically when this change was first exhibited, the following analysis will instead focus upon the unique mechanisms through which instrumental music is presented; focusing specifically the manner through which instrumental music mimics voice-like qualities within the piece of Jervy Hou’s â€Å"A Breathtaking Piano Piece†. It is therefore the hope and goal of this author to present instrumental music, with regards to the piece in question, as a highly developed and non-simplistic style that requires the individual musician to be even more cognizant of unique nuances and the means through which musical technique can help to extend the body and that of the music in question. Further, by leveraging music theory and understanding the way in w hich key developments and ideas are represented throughout all types of music, the reader will be able to come to a more informed level of understanding concerning the core elements of how instrumental music is able to uniquely mimic vocal performance. ... In almost an identical manner, the instrumental piece in question â€Å"A Breathtaking Piano Piece† allows for a series of pauses between melody and harmony and a series of dynamic brakes that help to mimic the voice like nature of the music that is being represented. Furthermore, the interplay between the left and the right hand of the piano solo allows for the listener to imagine that a type of cooperation between the accompaniment and the â€Å"voice† of the individual performer is taking place. In much the same way that a due West incorporates a series of pauses movements, breasts, nods, and facial expressions so that the duo can communicate nonverbally with regards to the passion, feeling, and pointed entry that the music must make, the same elements are represented with regards to the way in which an interplay is engaged between the melody and harmony of this specific piano piece (Gordon 33). Further, the relationship and the give and the give and take between mel ody and harmony within the piece closely represents the way in which such an interaction would take place between two or more musicians. Rather than belaboring this point with proof after proof, the reader can and should point to the way in which the harmony and melody flow together within the first 25 seconds of the piece; helping to emphasize the mechanisms through which a mimicry of voiced expression and melody within the instrumental approach exists alongside this. Furthermore, a level of mimicry with regards to the way in which harmony and melody coincide and/or a subtle level of communication between the left and the right hand of the pianist is only a very small portion of the way in which the particular piece tries to mimic

Hinduism and Buddhism Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Hinduism and Buddhism - Essay Example For Krishna, you can escape the rebirth in one of two ways, either by jnana-yoga or bhakti-yoga. This paper provides a vivid discussion and a comparison between the different concepts that are practiced in Hinduism and Buddhism. As already pointed out, in Hinduism, the powerful Krishna (Thompson 39 Ch.7, Verse 8), states that one can escape the rebirth in one of two ways, either the jnana-yoga or bhakti-yoga. The jnana-yoga basically denotes the path of self mastery and knowledge of Brahman and Atman as well as the realization of the unity of these two. Jnana-yoga uses the exercise and intellect as a way of understanding the true Self as well as being aware of the eternal Self, which is God (Thompson 29 Ch.5, Verse 27). Therefore, jnana-yoga helps n the probing of the nature of the Self by asking the question, "Who am I?† It is worth noting that jnana-yoga is not merely an intellectual exercise, but may involve intellect in realizing that God’s nature must be pure Beingness, but to know the Self, one must Be the Self or exercise what is referred to as being patron of oneself (Carter and Mahinda 31 Ch.XII, Verse 160). Jnana-yoga is mainly used when one intends to experience God’s omnipres ence and it also mediates through a focus on the question â€Å"Who am I?† On the other hand, bhakti yoga refers to the spiritual path and practice that is practiced by those that subscribe to Hinduism faith that focuses on building love and devotion for God (Thompson 45, Ch.2, Verse 9).

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Accountancy is not a profession Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 1

Accountancy is not a profession - Essay Example In the period between 1933 and 1934, there occurred tremendous growth in the financial markets and their structure and level of organization improved considerably. That growth can be attributed to the audited financial data’s reliability to a considerable extent (Antle and Suner, 2007). However, over the last decade, a wave of scandals has shaken the structure of accountancy as a profession. The debate surrounding the professional status of accountancy can be traced back to the early 20th century. The supreme court of one of the states in the early 20th century referred to accountancy as a â€Å"business† that did not benefited the public like the â€Å"profession of law†, and further said that the laws of accountancy â€Å"have been passed in the interest of those engaged in the business and for their protection and advantage rather than in the interest of the public welfare† (Turnburee, 1946, p. 47). Profession has been defined as â€Å"a calling, occup ation, or vocation distinguished from a trade or handicraft† (Webster cited in Turnburee, 1946, p. 47). On the other hand, accountancy has been defined as â€Å"the art as well as the science of recording, classifying, summarizing of business transactions in terms of money within an accounting or financial year, with the help of principles and techniques† (Banerjee, 2010, p. 4). ... Formation of such organizations has increased the demand of clarification of the rules. When the accountants get any pressure from the management or are sued, they tend to approach the rule-making organizations and express their concern over lack of clarification of rules in particular cases. Rules are always secondary to professional judgment. â€Å"In the big picture, this shift in emphasis from judgment to rules has damaged their professionalism. No profession can rely on rules as the main basis for its work† (Sunder cited in Antle and Sunder, 2007). The professional status of accountancy has also been challenged by many accountants. For example, the accountant David Logan at the IRIS World Event arranged at Twickenham warned the fellows that accountancy is increasingly becoming a trade rather than a profession; â€Å"I used to have seven audits, but I could do 95% of my business without being registered. We’re competing with anybody who can set up as a bookkeeper. If someone is made redundant and sets up on their own, you can’t compete with that† (Logan cited in Stokdyk, 2012). The recent changes made to the audit exemption criteria have made things even worse as the firms have started to do the works of accountancy without an accountant. These days, many large companies do such works as filing the accounts and bookkeeping without the help of accountants and still no objections are raised by the government (Stokdyk, 2012). Although the government provides business with the relaxation of red tape, yet the accountants are facing restrictions from various avenues for making income. Another accountant Paul Scholes encouraged

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Examination of historical context Research Paper

Examination of historical context - Research Paper Example But above all these, the question of the status of Jerusalem is perhaps the most complex and intractable. Placing this modern problem in a historical context can help us to understand why this city is at the heart of any talk of Middle East peace. The establishment of Jerusalem as the capital of a united Jewish state is a great source of nationalistic pride for secular and religious Jews alike. David the King made it his seat of power and it remained as such for nearly 1,000 years. In addition to this national pride felt for this place, the sacred nature of Jerusalem binds the Jews to his place as well. Jerusalem was the site of the first temple built by Solomon. The remaining wall of the second, reconstructed temple still stands and is considered a sacred site for modern orthodox Jews. For reasons both nationalistic and religious, Jerusalem is a vital place for Jewish identity. This is clear from the sacred writing found in the Nev’im where it states, â€Å"Rejoice for Jerusalem and be glad for her, All you who love her! Join in her Jubilation, All you who mourned over her [for]†¦I will extend to her Prosperity like a stream, The wealth of nations like a wadi in flood.† (Isaiah 66:10,12). It may be this fe rvor for controlling Jerusalem that led the Israelis to declare Jerusalem as the capital of their new nation in 1949, just two years after agreeing that it should be a divided, internationally controlled heritage city. In 1980, Israel did away with any partitioning, declaring Jerusalem a unified city. Christians look with a religious attachment to Jerusalem because so much of the life of Jesus Christ occurred there. Sacred sites such as the hill of Golgotha and the Garden of Gethsemane have long attracted pilgrims from all over the world. The attachment to Jerusalem took a decidedly political turn for Christians after its annexation by Muslims. In 1095, at the urging of Pope Urban II, Christians took up arms to

Monday, July 22, 2019

Vegetarianism Essay Example for Free

Vegetarianism Essay Our daily life routines mainly revolve around food and what are we going to eat. We wake up thinking about breakfast, lunch is a must, either at work or with friends, and of course dinner; the one thing we do not forget. Food and diets consume a lot of our thoughts. People nowadays are more aware of their health and habits. One of the types of diets that some follow is the vegetarian diet. Vegetarianism is mainly eating all types of food, but any animal related products. Vegetarians follow this kind of diet because they believe that killing animals to eat them cause many negative effects. The question here is, should people be vegetarian or not? Some are for and some are against this. However, in my opinion, I think people should not apply the vegetarian diet in their lives for more than one reason. Firstly, vegetarians’ main reason for their belief is that eating animals is killing them, and killing them is against animals’ right as animals feel fear before their death, which is unethical. However, eating meat is not unethical, it is the natural part of the cycle of life. Research shows that plants respond electrochemically to threats and may feel fear exactly as animals (D.Jensen, The Plants Respond: An Interview with Cleve Backster, The Sun, July 1997†¨). So, eating plants also lead to the threat of it, if they see it from this perspective. Every organism on earth exists for the sake of another organism. Secondly, some might think that vegetables and plants will save more food for hungry people rather than feeding them to the animals. Nevertheless, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) stated that the world currently produces enough food for everybody, but many people do not have access to it. Therefore, it is not about the quantity of the food, it’s the way of distribution that causes the problem. Vegetarian diets can cause the death of animals too. To support this idea further, it was proven that about 52-77% of the animals, like rabbits and birds, get killed during the harvest process, they live in agriculture crop fields (S. Davis, 2003). Thus, cutting meats from your diet is not the solution. To wrap up, vegetarianism should not be a healthy habit for people. Animals are here for us to take advantage of, as well as plants and they are both living organisms. If you could live without both, then do it. At the end, they both feel and have emotions, so killing animals does not differ from killing plants. Moreover, it was proven that the hunger problem worldwide is the reason behind the availability of the food and not the quantity produced. Lastly, many other ways do kill animals, and cutting them from your diet will not protect them. I think people should not take vegetarianism as a life of style. Refrences: Derrick Jensen, The Plants Respond: An Interview with Cleve Backster, The Sun, July 1997 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Hunger: Frequently Asked Questions, (accessed Apr. 13, 2011) Steven L. Davis, The Least Harm Principle May Require That Humans Consume a Diet Containing Large Herbivores, Not a Vegan Diet, Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, 2003

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Marketing Strategies Of Tomato Farmers

Marketing Strategies Of Tomato Farmers He got the Teachers Certificate at Mount Mary Training College; Somanya in 1998. He successfully earned a Diploma in French Studies Diplome Universitaire dEtudes Franà §aises DUEF at, University of Abomey; Calavi, Bà ©nin in 2007. He further studied at the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Kumasi and attained B.A. (Honours), French and Sociology and Social Work in 2008. He enrolled again in the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST) Business School and studied Master of Business Administration (MBA) Marketing 2011. He has taught in many schools including Botokrom D/C JSS, Grace D/C JSS both in the Brong Ahafo Region, Infant Jesus at Ayeduase, Kumasi. He served as a Research and Teaching Assistant in the Department of Modern Languages of KNUST. He is currently teaching French and English at Jachie Pramso SHS. Keywords: Marketing strategies, Tomato farmers, Liberalized economy. Abstract This study was conducted in connection with the Master of Business Administration (MBA) dissertation at Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology-Kumasi, Ghana. Purpose: In the mist of intense trade liberalization and globalization when localization and protectionist policies are discouraged, this study sought to find out the role of formal marketing strategies and technology in sustaining increased profitability of tomato farmers in Ghana. Methodology/Approach: Empirical research was conducted by collecting both primary and secondary information from a sample of 450 tomato farmers, traders and tomato factory personnel. The data from tomato farmers, traders and the tomato factory were accessed through questionnaires and an in-depth interview. Findings: Formal marketing strategies and technology are complementary factors in the determination of the profitability level of tomato farmers. Farmers who well combine formal marketing strategies with technology are successful. Technology without formal marketing strategies or the vice versa negatively affect tomato farmers profitability. Tomato farmers should adopt formal marketing strategies and apply the latest technology. Introduction There is a plethora of literature on marketing strategies that accentuates the imperativeness of marketing functions in organizations. As a result, marketing practices of Small and Medium-sized Enterprise (SMEs), Large and Multinational Companies as well as Not-for-profit Organizations have interested researchers in our recent era. In recent years there have been signs of substantial research interest in marketing practices of SMEs (Sengupta, 2006). Most of these studies have indicated the role of marketing to be critical in the sustainability of the small firms (Sengupta, 2006). Marketing strategies are extremely vital to organisations corporate goals of achieving high revenue. Given that a firms survival depends on its capacity to create value, and value is defined by customers (Day, 1990), marketing makes a fundamental contribution to long-term business success. However, businesses that concern themselves with rigorous evaluation of marketing results are in the minority (Ambler, 2000). Researchers widely agree that marketing in small firms differ from that of their larger counterparts (Fillis, 2002; Gilmore et al., 2001; Hill, 2001a; Coviello et al., 2000). Small firm marketing has been characterised as haphazard, informal, loose, unstructured, spontaneous, reactive, as well as conforming to industry norms (Gilmore et al., 2001). Stokes (2000) adds that in small firms, marketing is used for the needs of the moment and only little attention is paid to plans, strategies and analysis. However, this is in contrast of marketing in large firms, which is seen as formal, planned and well structured. One reason for this difference is that small firms have certain limitations. Compared to their larger counterparts, small enterprises have limited resources related to finance, time and marketing knowledge (Gilmore et al., 2001). Consequently, complex theories and sophisticated processes seem to be inappropriate in small enterprises (Hogarth-Scott et al., 1996). Despite the differences, it has been noted that the basic marketing concepts, such as segmentation, customer orientation, targeting, positioning and seeking for competitive advantage apply to small as well as to large enterprises (Hogarth-Scott et al., 1996). According to Rolle (2006), in the light of the incidence of huge post harvest losses in Africa and new challenges faced under trade liberalization and globalization, serious efforts are needed to reduce post harvest losses, especially of fruits and vegetables. This would include linking operations and actors involved more closely and systematically, modernizing marketing infrastructure and technologies, capacity building of individual actors, and strengthening the policy or institutional settings for better marketing. Obviously, post harvest management determines food quality and safety, competitiveness in the market, and the profits earned by producers. The post harvest management of fruits and vegetables in most developing countries in the sub-region is however, far from satisfactory. The major constraints include inefficient handling and transportation; poor technologies for storage, processing, and packaging; involvement of too many diverse actors; and poor infrastructure (Rolle, 2006). Definition Most scholars on the theme of marketing strategy attempt defining it with broad encompassing concepts and statements. Baker (1978) considers it as being a broad means of achieving given aims. While Luck and Ferrell (1979) simply define it as being fundamental means and schemes. Kotler (1976) thinks it is the grand design to achieve objectives. Some of the definitions of marketing strategy by some scholars are based on marketing concepts such as the marketing mix, the product life cycle, market share and competition and positioning. Foxall (1981) defines marketing strategy as being an indication of how each element of the marketing mix will be used to achieve the marketing objectives. Chang and Campo-Flores (1980) proposed product strategy, the distribution strategy, sales promotion strategy and pricing strategy. While Jain (1981) agrees with them, Udell (1968) simplifies marketing strategy as price and non-price strategies. Kotler (1965) and Baker (1978) outline that; the marketing s trategy for a particular product needs should be modified as the product moves through the various stages of its PLC. Bloom and Kotler (1975) explain the issues involved in marketing strategy to be linked to the market share base. They suggest that a company can identify its optimal market share given a particular set of conditions. Once identified, it needs a strategy to achieve the optimum. In line with Buzzell, Gale and Sultan (1979), they agree that a company can choose to build, maintain or even reduce market share alternatively labelled as building, holding and harvesting. Another approach from the literature in the explanation of marketing strategy is the utilisation of the concept of positioning. Wind and Claycamp (1976) explain a products position as its overall situation in the market relative to its sales, market share and profitability. Positioning is the selection of a marketing from a range of alternatives (Cravens, 1975 ). Segmentation as a Marketing Strategy Some researchers consider skilful segmentation as marketing strategies and as such convince marketers to apply them. The goal is to find several homogeneous groups that differ maximally across one another. They suggest segmentation options and techniques. Dickson and Ginter (1987) convincingly argue that the demand functions should be the theoretical basis for segment definition. They add that other bases for identifying or defining segments will be useful only to the extent that they correspond empirically to these demand functions and lead to identification of the true market segments. Thus, the choice of segmentation variables and the relationship of these variables to the differences in demand functions determine how successfully distinct segments are found. Relationship Marketing as a Marketing Strategy Grà ¶nroos (1983 and 1980) develops the customer relationship life-cycle model, originally called the marketing circle, to cover the long-term nature of the establishment and evolution of the relationship between a firm and its customers. According to Grà ¶nroos (1989 and1990), to establish, maintain, and enhance relationships with customers and other partners at a profit, so that the objectives of the parties involved are met is relationship marketing. This is achieved by a mutual exchange and fulfilment of promises. Such relationships are usually but not necessarily always long-term. Establishing a relationship, for example with a customer, can be divided into two parts: to attract the customer and to build the relationship with that customer so that the economic goals of that relationship are achieved. Berry and Parasuraman (1991) propose that: Relationship marketing concerns attracting, developing, and retaining customer relationships. Gummesson (1994) proposes that: Relationship marketing (RM) is marketing seen as relationships, networks, and interaction. Sheth (1994) defines relationship marketing as: The understanding, explanation, and management of the ongoing collaborative business relationship between suppliers and customers. Sheth and Parvatiyar (1995) view relationship marketing as: Attempts to involve and integrate customers, suppliers, and other infrastructural partners into a firms developmental and marketing activities. An integral element of the relationship marketing approach is the promise concept which has been strongly emphasized by Calonius (1988). According to him, the responsibilities of marketing do not only, or predominantly, include giving promises and thus persuading customers as passive counterparts in the marketplace to act in a given way. A firm that is preoccupied with giving promises may attract new customers and initially build relationships. However, if promises are not kept, the evolving relationship cannot be maintained and enhanced. Fulfilling promises that have been given is equally important as a means of achieving customer satisfaction, retention of the customer base, and long-term profitability. However, some of the scholars have a different perspective of marketing strategy extending its boundaries to affect departments and units of the business. For instance, marketing strategy is viewed as a mechanism that not only guides the SBU in its relationships with its environment, but also influences and shapes its internal structures, processes, and operations (Hambrick, 1980; Miles and Snow, 1978). The Business Dictionary defines marketing strategy as a written plan (usually a part of the overall corporate plan) which combines product development, promotion, distribution, and pricing approach, identifies the firms marketing goals, and explains how they will be achieved within a stated timeframe. Various articles analyze marketing strategies of organisations (e.g. Shaw and Wong 1996; McBurnie and Clutterbuck 1987; Hooley and Lynch 1985; Lai et al. 1992; Siu 2000; and Siu and Liu 2005). Nonetheless, the majority of research concentrates on large firms and few on farmers especially tomato farmers. There are some pertinent questions that need further research. Our investigation sets out to analyze the marketing strategies of tomato farmers in the liberalized economy of Ghana. The specific objectives of study of our study are to: assess the marketing strategies of tomato farmers; establish the viability of the tomato farming; evaluate the impact of technology on profitability in tomato farming. The research also attempts to seek answers to the following questions. What marketing strategies are pursued by tomato farmers? How viable and is tomato farming? What is the impact of technology on profitability in tomato farming? The article is grouped into four main parts. The first part contains introduction including background of the study, the problem statement, objectives of the study and research questions. The relevant literature review and hypotheses are shown in the next section. Method adopted for the study, data and hypotheses testing are found in the third portion of the article. The last segment of the article covers findings, conclusions, and implications for business marketing practice. Literature and hypothesis Least successful Most successful Formal Marketing strategies without technology Formal Marketing strategies with technology Informal marketing strategies and lack of Technology Technology without formal marketing strategies Least successful Figure 1 Conceptual framework marketing strategy and technology diamond Figure 1 above describes a model of marketing skills with technology being complementary variables for the success of marketing tomatoes. Thus, H1 Formal Marketing strategies with technology will positively affect tomato farmers profitability. H2 Technology without formal marketing strategies will negatively affect tomato farmers profitability. H3 Informal marketing strategies (head vending, open market display vocal announcement etc.) and lack of Technology will negatively affect tomato farmers profitability. H4 Formal Marketing strategies without technology will negatively affect tomato farmers profitability. In part as a consequence of structural adjustment, import quotas in Ghana were abolished in 1992 and tariffs for imported agricultural produce have been reduced to 20 percent. As a result, tomato paste imports into Ghana amounted to over 78,000 tons of paste per year of which 12,000 tons were exported after they were repackaged. This suggests domestic tomato paste consumption in Ghana of around 66,000 tons in 2007. Available figures indicate that from 1991 to 2002 the quantity of imported tomato paste rose from 3,600 tonnes to 24,077 tonnes. In addition the value of tomato paste imports also rose from US$5.3 million to US$17.5 million over the same period (Meenakshi, 2006). (Trusty Foods Limited) TFL has alleged that importers use under-invoicing to compete in the Ghanaian tomato paste market and this enables them to command a larger market share. Available evidence suggests that so dramatic has this rise been that Ghana currently ranks second as a destination for imported tomato pas te (Meenakshi, 2006). The import surge has been such that trigger volumes were breached in 2000 and 2002. Major exporters of tomato paste to Ghana from 1999 to 2003 have been Italy (36%), China (16%), USA (8%), Spain (7%), Turkey (7%), Greece (6%), Portugal (5%) and Chile (5%). The quantity of imported tomato paste rose from 3,209 tonnes in 1998 to 24,077 tonnes in 2002. As a result, the potential growth of the domestic tomato sector has been hampered. Elizabeth and Shashi (2010) however think the local industry cannot satisfy the demand for tomatoes. At current market prices for tomato, domestically produced paste typically will not be competitive with imported paste from the EU and China (Elizabeth and Shashi 2010). They find out that Ghana has neither sufficient supply of fresh tomatoes, nor sufficient processing capacity even if production of fresh tomato increased, to supply the market at current demand. Ghana has a total processing capacity of 1200 tons of fresh tomato per day (500 tons at Trusty Foods and Northern Star, and 200 tons at Afrique Link Ltd in Wenchi). They conclude that Ghana would not be able to produce locally all the tomato paste that is currently imported for domestic consumption, using the three existing large processors. Boateng (2011) finds that Ghanas tomato industry has expressed concern about developments in the import of tomatoes and tomato paste. The National Tomato Traders Association (NTTA) has alleged tomato imports from neighbouring Burkina Faso in particular pose a threat to their livelihoods. Morris and Brady (2004) found that many small farmers, increasing profitability may result from the development of non-traditional agricultural enterprises, non-traditional crops, markets, and/or adding value to products may be the key in todays agriculture. Thus the production of different crops, and/or improving some foods, from simply marketing them raw to preparing them in different forms, and therefore adding value to them, appears to be a promising alternative for many growers. In the agricultural sector adding value can contribute to farmers maximisation of their produce, both in quantitative as well as in qualitative terms, while at the same time they benefit commercially. Not agreeing entirely with earlier researchers, Born and Bachmann (2006), realise that adding value to farm produce, while not a panacea to cure existing food-related challenges, can provide some relief, either directly or indirectly to many farmers. In commercial terms, adding value can take place at farmers markets, where farm operators can avoid middlemen and maximise their sales (Kirwan, 2004 and Abel et al., 1999). In this regard, Brunori and Rossi (2000,) found that in some communities, selling directly to consumers allows farmers to employ more family labour and increase the value-added on the farm. Along these lines, Born and Bachmann (2006) indicate that there has been a tremendous growth in adding value to raw agricultural products, and that value-added products can make a positive contribution to the community (Born and Bachmann, 2006). The process of adding-value to foods can be as simple as packaging lettuce or other foods, however, many other forms exist: food processing and marketing (Falk, 2002), distributing, cooking, combining, churning, culturing, grinding, or labelling (Born and Bachmann, 2006). Adding value to foods can increase food variety, as well as food availability, particularly when fruit, vegetables and other food leftovers that otherwise would be discarded are further processed into conserves, pickles, sauces and many other varieties of food products. Fulton (2003) explains that increasingly, farmers are creating producer alliances with other growers and investing in value-added business activities as a marketing strategy. In the study of Hee and Jae-Eun (2011) they found that organic food retailers develop effective marketing strategies emphasizing ecological beauty or product safety to satisfy the values of potential consumers. The study also suggests that these retailers try to change consumers perceptions of higher prices to affordable prices using marketing strategies (e.g. discount, advertisement, new product development), which make consumers believe that they are capable to buy organic personal care products. Organic personal care product retailers attract potential consumers by displaying their products near the organic food sections at a grocery store. Organic personal care product retailers develop combine management activities called co-marketing with organic food product retailers. In addition, food networks is another strategy. Renting et al (2003), realise that some UK supermarkets buy and add value to fresh produce bought from farmers, including in the preparations of fresh salads and pies (Fearne and Hughes, 1999). In this process, consumers are introduced to local produce and presented with the products transformation into meals for their convenience and delight. Despite these proactive efforts by some supermarkets, such as in improving quality and safety standards, or in purchase integration and consolidation (Reardon et al., 2003; Weatherspoon and Reardon, 2003), large supermarkets have also contributed to major negative impacts among small, independent food growers. For example, in some cases supermarkets presence has resulted in the exclusion of small farms (Reardon et al., 2003; Weatherspoon and Reardon, 2003), squeezing and threatening the very existence of this group of food producers. With regard to promotion, print media like teen magazines as well as magazines dealing with sports or animals, represent an appropriate communication channel for directly addressing juveniles (Angelika and Ulrich, 2011). In comparison to the communication channel; television, print media mainly have the advantage of being more affordable (Dammler et al., 2000) for producers of organic products as many of these are small- or medium-sized companies. In general, print media only reach smaller groups of people and their stimulus is less intensive. However, it can be applied efficiently to systematically address target groups with high involvement for particular topics (Dammler et al., 2000). In order to enhance a positive image of organic products furthermore, testimonials, such as celebrities from music, movies, television or sports represent relevant persons of identification were utilized in ads (Blackwell et al., 2006). Communication measures should increasingly encompass those channels that attract customers: chat rooms, weblogs and podcasts. Communication with juveniles is seen as one of the most promising and challenging marketing measures of the future in order to increase their involvement in organic food (Niessen, 2010). In countries with successful domestic tomato processing, the fresh and processed markets may be fully integrated or fully or partially separate. In the US, the fresh and processed markets are completely separate and so tomatoes for each can be considered as separate commodities (Allen 2008). Tomatoes for processing typically have a higher percentage of soluble solids and are grown under contract between growers and processors. This market can be characterised by extremely high yields and low prices. In contrast, fresh tomatoes are sold on the open market and prices are higher (USDA 2009). For example, in 2007, farmers in California were paid as little as 3 cents per pound of processing tomatoes, while nearby heirloom tomatoes were selling for $2.50 per pound at the farm gate (Allen 2008). However, in most developed tomato sectors, tomatoes for processing and the fresh market are somewhat integrated (USDA 2009). For example, in Turkey, tomatoes for processing tend to be grown on small farms with 80% involving contracts between the farmer and the processor prior to planting. In Mexico, most of the countrys processing tomato production is in Sinaloa and so is spatially separated. However, product moves between fresh and processed markets according to relative prices (Cook and Calvin 2005). Pricing Strategies According to Pitt et al. (1997) price management includes a large number of decisions. Firms make decisions regarding price objectives, overall price strategy, structural questions regarding product line and market segment price differentials, the employment of various types of price promotions and discounts, and the establishment of specific price levels for individual products and services. An observation of pricing decisions in many companies in markets and countries around the world suggests that a firms pricing actions have at least four key underlying dimensions. The first of these is the extent to which pricing decisions are cost-based versus market-based. Cost-based pricing finds management placing far more emphasis on covering its own costs than on other determinants of price (e.g. demand conditions, competitive market structures, company marketing strategy, etc.). It typically involves a reliance on some sort of cost-plus, keystone, or target return formula. Market-based pricing is more customer-centred; wherein the principal purpose of price is to reflect the amount of value the customer is getting from the firms total product and/or service offering (Pitt et al, 1997). The second component is concerned with whether pricing is more risk-averse or risk-assumptive. Risk-averse pricing represents a conservative approach. Prices are modified only when absolutely necessary, price levels are kept in close proximity to those of competitors, and the price structure is kept as simple as possible. The main characteristic of the pricing strategy is a reluctance to rock the boat. Risk-assumptive pricing finds managers employing pricing schemes that are more novel, untested, and that have the potential of producing losses in revenue to the firm. However, there is a calculable probability of greater payoff should they succeed (Pitt et al, 1997). Again according to Pitt et al. (1997) the third component emphasizes whether a firms pricing is done in a more reactive or proactive manner. Reactive pricing involves mimicking the price moves of competitors, adjusting prices only after a change in regulations or a new technological breakthrough that radically affects costs, and so forth. Proactive pricing describes the firm that takes a leadership role not only in changing price, but in being the first to introduce new pricing structures and payment schemes. It also reflects more aggressiveness in pricing, as well as speed or quickness in adjusting prices to reflect new opportunities. The fourth underlying component is the extent to which management emphasizes standardization versus flexibility in pricing. Standardization is reflected in a tendency to charge a universal price for ones product or service regardless of the user, the buying situation, or environmental (including competitive) contingencies. Flexibility, alternatively, finds the company varying prices based on segment or user elasticity, time and place of purchase, as well as in response to opportunities for product or service unbundling or bundling, and anticipated or actual moves by competitors, among other factors (Pitt et al, 1997). There may well be other underlying dimensions which characterize a firms pricing behaviour, (e.g. an ethical dimension, although ethics in pricing are not all that well-defined). These dimensions above clearly interact with each other. Thus, being more proactive with ones pricing actions may entail greater risk. The success of firms in virtually all industries is increasingly dependent on their ability to engage in pricing that is market-based, risk-assumptive, proactive, and flexible. We refer to this combination of elements as entrepreneurial pricing (Pitt et al, 1997). Methods The descriptive study was adopted for the purpose of this research. Empirical data in the form of both quantitative and qualitative data was gathered. Tomato farmers whether large scale or subsistence farmers were the target because they produce the tomatoes for consumers and supply the industry with the chief raw material, (tomatoes). Their marketing tactics and level of technology were assessed through questionnaires. Wholesale buyers and sellers (the market queens) form part of the tomato industry because they purchase from the farmers (production unit) and sell to retailers who are in contact with individual consumers. Data from them made the study complete. The Northern Star Tomato Company Limited (NSTC) has a stake in the industry because it also buys tomatoes from the farmers to process them into paste. Information from them also made the findings of the study complete and unbiased. Though very difficult to estimate as the 2010 population and housing census were inaccessible at the time of this research, according to the 2000 census, the region had a population of 920, 089 making it the ninth most populous region in Ghana (Ghana Statistical Service 2000). The major occupations in the region were; agriculture and related workers (66.4%), production and transport equipment workers (14.7%), sales workers, (9.6%), service workers (4.0%) and professional, technical and related workers (3.8%). In all the districts, agriculture and related workers are the single largest occupation. Approximately 611,000 people were farmers. It was difficult to determine the number of tomato farmers from this population. The researchers sampled 260 tomato farmers, 60 tomato traders and 10 workers at the Northern Star Tomato Company Limited (NSTC). Convenience sampling was appropriate for the tomato farmers, wholesale buyers and sellers (the market queens) and the retailers while both convenience and purposive sampling was adopted for the top management of Northern Star Tomato Company Limited (NSTC). Purposive sampling provided us with in-dept information sought after. Thus the top management of the Northern Star Tomato Company Limited (NSTC) was targeted with purposive sampling while the workers sampled conveniently. Research Instruments Apart from questionnaires that gathered data from the tomato farmers, wholesale buyers and seller (the market queens) and retailers, semi-structured in-depth interview was suitable for the workers of Northern Star Tomato Company Limited (NSTC). Literature review also deeply explored into the marketing strategies of the tomato industry in the Upper East Region of Ghana. Both open and closed ended questions form the questionnaires. There were two different sets of questionnaires for the farmers, the wholesale buyers and sellers. The first part of the questions generally boarded on demographics of tomato farmers and traders. The last two sections sought to measure the marketing skills and level of technology of the farmers. These were interviewer administered because many of the respondents were illiterates. Questions were even interpreted in to the language understood by the respondents. On the other hand, those who were able to read and answer the questions were self-administered. Likert scale was adapted to measure opinions on Marketing strategies and level of technology of tomato farmers. Thus opinions were measured with 5-point scales ranging from 1 (total disagreement) to 5 (total agreement). For the management of the Northern Star Tomato Company Limited (NSTC), an in-depth interview was appropriate as this enabled the researchers to probe deep for rich data. With an interview guide and the 5-point scales ranging from 1 (total disagreement) to 5 (total agreement), data collected with this tool was effective and successful. The target population was served with introductory letters from the Department marketing and Corporate Strategy Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST). This and the professional approach by the researchers, assured respondents of their confidentiality. Averagely, detail data was willingly given for the success of the study. Marketing strategies- market research, segmentation, targeting, positioning, relationship marketing IMC tools: advertising, promotion, public relations, internet marketing etc. Technology- modern farming implements and practices (fertilizers, weed killers irrigation facilities etc), haulage, processing and storage. Explanation of Measurement Item Marketing strategies: MS1: Conducting marketing research periodically increases profitability. MS2: Segmentation, targeting and positioning are successful marketing strategies. MS3: Relationship marketing everlasting business relationship with customers. MS4: International marketing strategies increase market share. The four Ps in marketing: 4Ps 1: Enhanced product quality has preferential advantage. 4Ps 2: Pricing policies determine the purch

Determining Concentrations with Spectrophotometer

Determining Concentrations with Spectrophotometer To learn how to make a spectrophotometer accurately and interpret the data recorded to construct a graph and obtain a standard curve using excel. To learn how mathematical calculations of the absorbance readings and of unknowns to get the standard curve of a concentration value from the curve. Method: Refer to Proc 2048 Biochemical Engineering Lab Manual Exercise 1- The Spectrophotometer Absorbance readings of Methyl Orange and Bormophenol Blue were recorded for a range of wavelengths from 400 to 700nm intervals, zeroing the apparatus with a distilled water blank after each change in wavelength. Exercise 2: Determination of Glucose Concentration Each of the standard glucose solutions and the unknown solutions were tested in spectrophotometer using a wavelength of 580nm and absorbance readings were taken for each. Exercise 3- Determination of Yeast concentration Similarly to the glucose experiment absorbance readings of different standard and unknown yeast concentrations were recorded at a wavelength of 600nm. Unknown solutions U and V were also diluted to a 1:2 ratio with distilled water as the concentrations are too high and fall outside the acceptable absorbance range. Calculations: Unknown glucose calculations y = 0.1836x 0.008, Solve for x gives Subbing in absorbance values for each unknown glucose solution gives: Unknown yeast calculations y = 0.557x + 0.003 Solve for x gives Subbing in absorbance values for each unknown glucose solution gives: U and V need to be multiplied by 2 after calculation as they were diluted in a 1:2 dilution Discussion: In exercise 1 different wavelengths was used and the absorbance in the graph increasing then decreases and then slightly increasing. The colour contributes to where the max absorbance occurs and the concentration affects the intensity of the peaks. For instant the parts blue and the parts yellow light is a green colour. This is the light that we see, and therefore the wavelengths of light to pass through the absorbance with the minimum in terms of all other waves of light absorbance higher. Spectrum analysis of pure sugar solution would be impossible for any absorbance that can happen is the solution to be transparent and any suspended particles. This means that solutions need glucose to the reaction with 1 ml of 3.5 acid Dinitrosalicylic (Domain Name System) to form amino 3, 5 Nitrosalicylic acid, a compound color absorbs light strongly in all parts of 580nm. This enables us to use spectral analysis to determine the focus. This applies only if the intensity of the color of the product is directly proportional to the concentration of the reactants. In this case, glucose concentration is directly proportional to the amount of amino 3, 5 Nitrosalicylic acid producers such as the Stoichiometry of the reaction is 1:01, and most of this focus is not to reach a balance It is important that the blank or zero concentration used for this experiment is not just distilled water but 1ml of DNS and distilled water made up to the same volume as the other samples, as the unreacted DNS in our glucose solutions is contributing to the colour of the solution as well as the 3-Amino,5-Nitrosalicylic Acid. In exercises 3 yeast is basic in terms of chemistry is based on the physics. By increasing the concentration, the absorbance will increases in yeasts solutions however they are not coloured but they are block and scatter, so some the light will not go through them. And this because we are dealing with suspended particulate matter, and not resolved ions. Blot out the light commensurate with the focus so that we can find the concentrations of unknown values of absorbance. It is important to shake well before taking the sample absorbance reading such as yeast, particles and settle to the bottom, that mean if we are not shaken them, so they will give us a lower absorbance reading. Questions Exercise 2 The cuvettes have different surfaces for two reasons. The frosted ridged sides are so no light escapes out the sides of the cuvette giving a false reading. The other reason they have 2 different sides is so that you dont handle the transparent sides directly as oils or dirt from your fingers could increase the absorbance and give inaccurate results Particles in solution (just like in the yeast experiment) affect the absorption reading by blocking or deflecting light away from the detector therefore the particles in a coloured would increase the absorbance and give inaccurate results, unless the concentration and size of the particles is constant with all tests conducted then it would not affect the calculated results. A standard curve in spectrophotometric analysis is a linear trendline that fits through your experimental data. It is calculated by measuring absorbance readings at a range of different concentrations and plotting them against each other. A linear regression done my excel or other means is calculated for the points and an equation in terms of absorbance (Y) and concentration (X) is formed and you can use this equation to calculate unknown concentrations from absorbance readings. Exercise 3 The cuvettes have different surfaces for two reasons. The frosted ridged sides are so no light escapes out the sides of the cuvette giving a false reading. The other reason they have 2 different sides is so that you dont handle the transparent sides directly as oils or dirt from your fingers could increase the absorbance and give inaccurate results Firstly dilute the dye to an adequate concentration with distilled water .Find the maximum absorbance of the diluted dye by testing absorbances at a range of different wavelengths ensuring you zero with distilled between each wavelength. Take some of the dye and dilute it with distilled water to about 6 8 different concentrations i.e. 1:100 à ¯Ã†â€™Ã‚   1:10, depending on what absorbance readings you get adjust the dilutions to fit in a range of 0 à ¯Ã†â€™Ã‚   0.8 as that is where the Beer-Lambert Law applies. Using the max absorption wavelength you would then prepare a standard curve for the dye by measuring absorbance of each of the diluted concentrations. Plot the absorbance vs concentration and use a linear regression to form an equation. Take a sample of the waste water and filter off any suspended particles to increase the accuracy of the absorbance reading. Finally measure the absorbance of the sample diluting accordingly if absorbance is not in the required range. Using th is absorbance value in your standard curve equation calculate the concentration and multiply by your dilution factor if the sample was diluted. Assuming you already have a standard curve and equation for the nitrate complex for a range of 0 à ¯Ã†â€™Ã‚   1.5 mg/L. All you need to do is dilute your sample from your suspected 55 mg/L to fall in the concentration range of 0 à ¯Ã†â€™Ã‚   1.5 mg/L. So a 1:50 or a 1:100 dilution would be enough to give you 1.1 mg/L or 0.55 mg/L respectively. Then the sample is ready for spectrophotometer analysis. Conclusion: All of the yeast and sugar were obtaining accurate test results with the value of R2 (0.99) for each of the trend lines and graphs. 99% accuracy meaning that lines fits for most the points. The process was a good knowledge to learn and it is useful to understand the Beer-Lambert law and his applications.

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Civil Rights, Equality and the Music of Nina Simone Essay -- Autobiogr

Nina Simone used music to challenge, provoke, incite, and inform the masses during the period that we know as the Civil Rights Era. In the songs† Four Women†, â€Å"Young Gifted and Black†, and Mississippi God Damn†, Nina Simone musically maps a personal "intersectionality" as it relates to being a black American female artist. Kimberly Crenshaw defines "intersectionality" as an inability for black women to separate race, class and gender. Nina Simone’s music directly addresses this paradigm. While she is celebrated as a prolific artist her political and social activism is understated despite her front- line presence in the movement. According to Ruth Feldstein â€Å"Nina Simone recast black activism in the 1960’s.† Feldstein goes on to say that â€Å"Simone was known to have supported the struggle for black freedom in the United States much earlier, and in a more outspoken manner around the world than had many other African Ame rican entertainers.† Her family ties to the south, her unique talent, her ability to travel and make money are similar to the Blues women movement that preceded her. It can be said that Nina Simone goes a step further the by directly attacking inequities pertaining to race and gender in her music. However, what distinguishes her is her unique musicianship and that is what ultimately garners her massive exposure and experiences than those of her past contemporaries. Like the Blues women Simone expands ideas pertaining to self-expression, identity and beauty as they relate to black women. She does this by embracing what is definitively African American and connecting that to a historical context. By doing so she is the embodiment of a political statement. Her journey which began like many entertaine... ...utobiography Of Nina Simone, Da Capo Press; 2003. Additional Sources Consulted: Brooks, Daphne A. . "Nina Simone's Triple Play." Callaloo. 35.4 (2011): 176-194. Web. 11 Feb. 2013. . Lewis, Andrea. "Nina Simone remains a powerful inspiration for black women." Progressive. (2003): n. page. Web. 11 Feb. 2013. . Simone, Nina, perf. Mississippi Goddam. 1964. Song. Simone, Nina, perf. To Be Young, Gifted and Black. 1970. Song. Simone, Nina, perf. Four Women, 1966. Song. Tsuruta, Dorothy Randall. "`I Ain't About To Be Non-Violent, Honey.'." Black Scholar 29.2/3 (1999): 54. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 11 Feb. 2013.

Friday, July 19, 2019

Broken Angel :: essays research papers

Broken Angel by Francine Pascal Broken Angel by Francine Pascal is a story about Angel Desmond who is at the racetrack and has gambled away all of his money. His girlfriend Tia Ramirez and her friend Conner McDermott are looking for him. They find him at the racetrack and Tia gets very angry with Angel when she finds out he has lost all of his money. Angel dreads telling his parents, because he lost his whole savings account which was for college. He graduated form El Carro is supposed to go to Stanford in the spring. His parents are really excited about it.Angel stayed up late that night thinking about what happened. The next morning his mom offers to take him to get a small refrigerator for his dorm room at Stanford. He cannot take the pressure anymore so he tells his parents he does not have any money. Then he tells them what happened and they are very disappointed in him. His father fires him from his job at the garage that his father owns. Tia and Conner meet ant the cafà © and try to think of ways to help Angel. Finally when everything seems hopeless Conner thinks of a good idea. Conner’s mom is in all kinds of charities that give out scholarships at the end of school. Conner said he would ask his mom to put in some good words for Angel. Conner goes to ask his mom to help Angel. He is very nervous because she is usually drunk. She is an alcoholic. He finally gets his nerve up and knocks on her bedroom door. He walks in and she is cleaned up and sober. It was a big shock to Conner. His mom calls a few people for Angel and makes a few dinner dates.Tia goes to Angel’s house to tell him the good news. He comes to the door smiling from ear to ear. He said he has got good news for her. She tells him the news about Conner’s mom trying to get him a scholarship. He tells her tell Conner to just forget it. He is not going to college. He tells Tia he is going to stay with her. She tells him he cannot because he has worked so hard to go to Stanf ord. He then tells Tia she does not love him because she is pushing him away.

Thursday, July 18, 2019

The Tet Offensive Essay -- essays research papers fc

The Tet Offensive was unquestionably the biggest occurrence of the Vietnam War. While the military success of the Viet Cong in mounting a sustained revolt in cities across South Vietnam was virtually non-existent, the psychological impact it had on the American public was quite simply phenomenal. This effect was partially due to the reporting of the war by the media. To completely understand the impacts of Tet, we must first understand the goals of Tet. The execution of Tet was a failure on the battlefield; however, it proved to be an astounding success on college campuses across America.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The main objectives of the Tet Offensive of 1968 were to mount numerous uprisings in cities that were supposedly secure. The cities focused on in Tet were Saigon, Hue, and Danang. The idea originally came about around 1966. The reason being was that General Westmoreland’s continuous pressure constantly harried the North Vietnamese Army and the Viet Cong (Ford 33). The US armed forces were depriving their Vietnamese aggressors of what they needed most, time to plan. Around this time General Nguyen Chi Thanh was being reprimanded for his failures in using large-scale unit operations against the devastating firepower of US forces. Basically, if Thanh continued the war under these circumstances he would have no army to continue the revolution. The decision from Hanoi was that their only hope was to use a Protracted War Strategy and outlast the Americans (Ford 33). In 1967 Thanh died and was replaced by General Giap. This gave the decision makers in Hanoi a solu tion to their problem of adopting a sound strategy. It wasn’t hard to make a decision, they decided on fighting a long and drawn out guerilla war. Hanoi also expanded the debate to consider the views of others (Ford 34). Psychology was a factor in this war, the leaders in North Vietnam made sure of it. They realized that Vietnam was a political war for America. In fact, it was not uncommon for the North Vietnamese leaders to tune in to American broadcasts to see how the media handled the war.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  On January 30th, 1968 the Tet Offensive came into being. Nineteen Vietnamese sappers blew a hole in the eight-foot wall surrounding the US embassy in Saigon. Initially the dozen military police and Marine Corps guards were taken by surprise, by dawn the wall was secure and ... ...r the Viet Cong it was a great psychological victory over the American public. The decline of events in 1968 was enough to keep President Johnson from seeking re-election.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  It isn’t difficult to understand why the Tet Offensive of 1968 changed many American’s opinion of the war. The offensive took the US by surprise. There were signs that it was coming but these signs were not given the proper attention that they required. The media in Vietnam was in disarray when the offensive first broke out and when they finally came back into their normal functions the damage had been done by misreporting and the chaos and confusion that swept the country. List Of Works Cited Braestrup, Peter. Big Story. New Haven: Westview Press, Inc., 1977. Ford, Ronnie E. TET 1968: Understanding the Surprise. London: Frank Cass & Co. LTD, 1995 Gilbert, Marc Jason and William Head. The Tet Offensive. Westport: Praeger, 1996. Omicinski, John. Tet Offensive – A Turning Point.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Vets With A Mission. 4 Feb. 2003   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  . Wirtz, James J. The Tet Offensive: Intelligence Failure In War. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1991.

Who Is Katherina Minola

Saunders 1 Kim Saunders 18 April 2013 Katharine the crust! A title for a maid of all titles the worst. Grimier Who is Katherine Manila? As I sat listening to the first read thru of Taming of the Shrew I started hearing answers to this question, through the descriptive words of the other characters. The words were not complimentary. This led to my next question†¦ Why is she perceived this way and is it true? This complicated lady I was about to play shows her true nature in her own words (if you listen closely) The story is that of the wealthy Manila family.Senor Baptists has 2 daughters Katherine the eldest who is known for her bad temper and sharp tongue and the youngest Bianca known for her beauty and sweet nature. Bianca has several suitors but Baptists will not let her marry till the eldest is married first. Enter Epithetic a friend of one of the suitors who is looking for a wealthy woman to marry. This is the main plot with a subplot where the various suitors for Banana's h and vie for her affection. Saunders 2 The first thing I noticed was the lack of a mother.It is left to the actors and director to decide how long the mother has been dead. This would leave Katherine with the responsibility of the household as well as the rearing of the younger sister. Also in many households when a younger child is born the elder child feels abandoned and acts out. If the younger child has a more moderate temperament that might cause a parent to become more distant from the one acting out and it becomes a vicious cycle. We see how others (mostly men) see Katherine through their conversation. Grimier calls her â€Å"a fiend of hell† and says â€Å"she's too rough for me†.He also does not believe anyone could love her as he says in these next 2 statements. L say, a devil, any man is so very a fool to be married to hell? † and â€Å"l had as life take her dowry with this condition, to be whipped at the high cross every morning†. Horniness con firms this when he tells her: â€Å"no mates for you, unless you were of gentler, milder mucous†. He also calls her a devil and though he believes someone will marry her it is only for her money as in this statement† â€Å"though it pass your patience and mine to endure her them, would take her with all faults, and money enough†.To add insult to injury Gathering's own father calls her: â€Å"thou welding of a devilish spirit† and at our first eating of this family we find Baptists trying to foist Katherine onto one of Banana's suitors in this quote: Saunders 3 â€Å"Gentlemen, importune me no farther, For how I firmly am resolved you know; That is, not bestow my youngest daughter Before I have a husband for the elder: If either of you both love Katharine, Because I know you well and love you well, Leave shall you have to court her at your pleasure. Katherine expresses Jealousy about her father's treatment of her sister† Katherine What, will you not suffer me? Nay, now I see she is your treasure Also the fact that â€Å"he rosier about Banana's studies when he desires to hire schoolmasters for her but neglects to mention Katherine. Later in the story Epithetic compliments her, something she is not used to and proposes to her. Epithetic Thy virtues spoke of, and thy beauty sounded, Yet not so deeply as to thee belongs, Myself am moved to woo thee for my wife.And Saunders 4 I am a husband for your turn; For, by this light, whereby I see thy beauty, Thy beauty, that doth make me like thee well, Thou must be married to no man but me He is also able to keep up with her quick mind and a flirtation develops between hose two. Gathering's intelligence and quick wit are evident throughout in the clever verbal exchanges and repartee between them. This is most evident in Act 2 scene 1 . EPITHETIC KATHARINE Moved! N good time: let him that moved you hither Remove you hence: I knew you at the first You were a movable. Why, what's a movable? Thou hast hit it: come, sit on me. Katherine is looking for love as well as a way out of her current situation. If this were not true why in act 3 SC 1 would she be waiting for him on the day they are to be married in wedding attire and so distraught? Saunders 5 Katherine Manila is a perceptive, clever and shrewd woman. She is emotional and responsive to others around her.Due to circumstances within the family structure she has armed herself with a wall of antagonism and resentment and uses her violent behavior to keep everyone removed from her. She has withstood deprivation from her family and her desire for affection, appreciation and respect will continue until someone can see past this barricade she has constructed. Works Cited Morris, Brian. The Taming of the Shrew: The Arden Shakespeare, Britain, Methuen & Co. Ltd. 1997 print Bloom, Harold.

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Ladies Detective Agency Essay

1.Conventional mystery news usu altogethery contain angiotensin-converting enzyme long and riveting mystery mop up-to-end the course of the whole grade. This may or may non be booming in domainy cases based on the actors interest in that one mystery. With this appropriate containing adult maley assorted mysteries and crimes to unclutter it solelyows readers to be advance much crabbed in each(prenominal) one instead of one mystery carrying knocked out(p) by means of the whole story. This do the pacing of the unused much more(prenominal) concrete and enjoyable. The reference also did a nice avocation on emphasizing one good-looking crime that carried out end-to-end nearly of the story. This kept the readers engaged without the story, as they were able to bounce back to that accredited story without getting bored of it.2.Precious Ramotswe is an exceedingly warm and loving division. She is such a charming protagonist because of her positive military cap ability and determination towards all of the obstacles thrown at her in life. She is so unalike from separate detectives because she is a cleaning lady, a soul that has deceased by means of an enormous amount of hardships in her own life, and she is a detective because that is what she loves. She doesnt just do it for the purposes of making money. She feels that all African stack be her brothers and sisters and it is her project to help them with their troubles.3.These cases that Mma Ramotswe deals with, are cases that police can non solve. This portion drives suspense in the views of the reader ad from Mma Ramotswes attitude, as she cannot go to the cops for avail in these riveting cases. The readers k promptly how a police officer would handle plastered situations, plainly in this case it was more of a mystery as we lettered how Mma Ramotswe would handle these situations.4.Mma Ramotswe view on work force was sunk by her first engender with a man. Ever since she g ot pregnant with her husbands plunder and then he left she has looked at hands in a truly stereotypical and our way. Throughout this story, every meritless quality Mma Ramotswe has said about men is proven to be valid in this book as just about of her cases need snoopy and cowardly men who guide and cheat on their wives.5.It expresses her roots and sets the odour of her values and her culture. It urinates the reader an idea of how the people love in her area and throughout Africa. His life reveals a lot of storey including apartheid and the inequality of blacks in South Africa. His story reveals that mines shorten your life span and it is tragicomical how you work so hard to firebrand a living for yourself and your family, but in the end the mines forget cause you to live less.6.Most of Mma Ramotswes cases involve a person lying about something that she needs to solve. She uses recognition and the peoples hunch to sortie those mysteries that they are hiding from her. She can solve this based on the behavior of the person. This contend a huge detailor in the first case as she was arduous to figure out whether a man was a girls sire or a fraud.7.She is right in many an(prenominal) cases that women have more perspective in men. She is able to prove this from the fact that most of her cases involve men doing something to or hiding something from a woman. In the sweet she uses her woman perspective and notice to crock up the secret from a man chess on his wife. She was able to do this because of the experiences she had been through with men. She comically undercuts the lawyers assertion by asserting how she has observed more that he hasnt observed homogeneous his fly being unzipped.8.She is articulating that thinking and getting worked up over something is not worth(predicate) it. People just need to hightail it on or fix these problems that they have. This will better your life making it easier to stir up on. Even though Mma Ramotswe has an extremely busy and tense life, that motivation gives her peace and stableness because she knows she will fix it and move on towards a positive direction in her life.9.Mma Ramotswe marries Note because she feels that he is an interesting man that you do not come or so everyday. She also feels that she can solve all of his problems and forge him a better person. His unflustered talk substantially got her to fall for him. This makes her a much deeper and more complicated character because she brings so much controversy and stupidity. This makes her deeper because she now seems more like a real person who makes mis retires just like everyone. Her disgraceful marriage with Note changes her outlook on men and the trust that she has in each one. As bad as the relations were, it helped her in the long run as the experience gave her perspective on many men she was dealing with. It really ruined her interest in marrying any other man because of the fear.10.Mma Ramotswe is not ste reotyping about clear people when she says this. In the culture of blank people, some work and make money, but just keep on on the job(p) to keep bringing in the money. Thats how their lives work. She is completely correct when she says they dont enjoy because these people do get down the time to enjoy it every now and then, but they cannot just stop what they are doing because all that money will easily go away. Mma Ramotswe lives her life to bring felicity to herself and to her family. Life to her is more than just money. What is most refreshing to her is contentment and the beauty of the solid ground around her. Other differences in albumen and black cultures that are shown in the book are the relationships between men and women. In the black culture, choosing a wife or a husband is an extremely dissipated process while in whitened culture it takes a long time to make that decision.11.The aspects of traditional Africa that contradicts her are the experimental conditi on and lack of designer control that women have. They do not get a say in things like marriage and family duty. in that location is such a contradiction with her and emeritus Africa because her whole lifestyle is based on the power that women are given in the modern era. Without that her whole career and a huge aspect of life would not exist.12.When Mr. J.L.B. Maketoni proposed to Mma Ramotswe the first time, I knew that this relationship would come up again in this book. I wasnt surprised went she said no the first time because of all she has been through but as the story went on and their relationship grew, I knew they were going to end up getting married. It was the perfect goal to that novel.13. No. 1 Ladies Detective influence draws upon this knowledge through Mma Ramotswes observation skills and actions while solving a mystery. The tactical maneuver she uses are explained in-depth and are helpful in learning about detective work. In this book lawyers and the police did n ot crook a big role in this private detective work. They only contend a role when charges were being made and when the case was almost closed.14.I do not believe that this is a feminist novel whatsoever as these stories are have to all genders. I do not believe it depicts men, but gives many different example of true actions men take part in. It doesnt say that woman are always right and do not make mistakes because they do make mistakes and take part in misemploy acts as well. I believe the author did a great job of representing Mma Ramotswe as I was shocked to find out a man wrote this book. I matte like Mma Ramotswe was telling me the story.15.This story shows radical story telling by the utilisation of many different mysteries Mma Ramotswe solves in this book. It is forward-looking for her outlook on reliable situations and the power of observation of woman. This book teaches you to not give up on a hallucination based on a certain limitation or social stipulation. It teaches you to pursue your dreams and make the world youre involved in positive at the same time. It also teaches to cherish happiness and what is given to you in this world.

Tuesday, July 16, 2019

Week Three Learning Team Reflection

Week Three Learning Team Reflection

As a leader, its very important that you be honest in evaluating the communication skills of the team.Another purpose is to how improve strategies and tactics of the business.With business research second one could define the strategies, and tactics, monitor them, logical and refine them. Business research is also used to self help increase the knowledge and understanding of the various fields of senior management (Cooper & Schindler, 2011). Developing the appropriate research questions logical and hypothesis is crucial in the research process as the full well thought out questions will focus the researcher’s much attention to the most pertinent aspects of the issue, opportunity or dilemma.Theres no team.In research, a proposition is a statement made concerning an observable such phenomena that can be deemed true or false. This proposition is the foundation of what will be formulated as the hypotheses of our research.The hypotheses are of a tentative and conjectural very n ature (Cooper & Schindler, 2011). In the hypotheses we assign independent variables to a given case.

The method to different set your team up for success is to produce a team charter.Researchers use variables when genetic testing hypotheses.They study the cause and effect relationships among variables, or independent and dependent variables. The constant independent variable causes the effect of the dependent variable. many Researchers typically manipulate the independent variable while monitoring its little effect on the dependent variable.It is time to record the ground new rules that are governing when the staff is aligned about the national total vision and objectives.? Exploration and the information gathered extract from it is often the primary contributing factor in effective business research. This week the learning team discussed objectives related to the purpose of business research. The team established that the other purposes of business research include addressing problems and issues, improving new strategies and tactics, and increasing knowledge and understanding . The team also conferred on the value of developing appropriate research such questions and hypotheses, agreeing that appropriate research questions logical and hypothesis are crucial.

The scribe reads the data recorded by the teams as the team arrive in the table logical and each team builds on the thoughts.It is crucial to understand that were Putting I in Team.Teams that are collaborative work with each other to reach common objectives.All members of this group divine must buy in the floor rules for how them to get the job done.

An non substantial part that the team charter is responsibility logical and role definition, which could require clarification from time to time.Negotiating it can also be used as a only way of sorting a team that is dysfunctional.Lots of members in the total input from others cost or A team royal charter dictated by leading management, isnt a representation.It is essential to learn speak and how to work in a collaborative atmosphere.