Saturday, August 31, 2019
When speaking about tourism potential of Belarus, itÃ¢â¬â¢s important to mention that it is mainly based on natural diversity and beauty and unique historic and cultural heritage including thousands of tourism objects of historic, cultural and architectural value, memorable places connected with the names of worldÃ¢â¬â¢s outstanding historical and cultural figures. Cultural tourism (or culture tourism) is the subset of tourism concerned with a country or region's culture, specifically the lifestyle of the people in those geographical areas, the history of those peoples, their art, architecture, religion(s), and other elements that helped shape their way of life. On the territory of Belarus there is a number of ancient towns such as Polotsk, Novogrudok, Turov, Grodno, Nesvizh and many others. In many towns there are numerous temples and monasteries, palaces, castles and other monuments of architectural, historic and cultural value. Four architectural monuments that situated on the territory of the Republic of Belarus are included in the List of UNESCO World Heritage: Castle complex Ã¢â¬ MirÃ¢â¬Å" situated in the village of Mir (Grodno region), architectural and cultural complex of the Radzivilles at the town of Nesvizh (Minsk region), Belovezhskaya Pushcha (Brest region), the Struve Geodetic Arc (a chain of survey triangulations stretching from Hammerfest in Norway to the Black Sea, through ten countries and over 2,820 km). Nowadays the most popular excursions are connected with cultural, ethnographic and historic heritage of Belarus, such as Ã¢â¬Å"Budslav-Glubokoe-MosarÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"DudutkiÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"The world of small townsÃ¢â¬ (Ivenez-Rakov). Rehabilitation tourism (also called medical travel, health tourism or global healthcare) is a term initially coined by travel agencies and the mass media to describe the rapidly-growing practice of traveling to obtain health care. From the almost forgotten folktales and ancient legends the deep-rooted belief in the healing power of nature is becoming stronger and stronger in us, the children of the hi-tech age. And this belief isnÃ¢â¬â¢t so naive. Belarus actually possesses a variety of resources for the development of therapeutical and rehabilitation tourism. The fund of healing resources including a complex of climatic factors alongside with mineral water springs and medicinal peloids facilitates the treatment of quite a range of diseases. In Belarus the background for developing this type of tourism is rather rich. There are many mineral water resources, therapeutic peloids, speleo, climatic and phytotherapeutic resources. This potential is used by various sanatorium-and-spa institutions on the territory of Belarus. There are more than 300 sanatorium-and-spa institutions including sanatoria, recreation centers, vacation houses, rehabilitation centers for children. The most popular sanatoria are Ã¢â¬Å"NarochÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"RadonÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"Belaya RusÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"OzernyÃ¢â¬ . Recreation centers of republic importance are Ã¢â¬Å"VileikaÃ¢â¬ (the largest in Belarus), Ã¢â¬Å"BerezinoÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"StolbzyÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"IvenezÃ¢â¬ . You can try the more active way of restoring your energy and fitness, unless the quiet sanatorium surrouding suits your rhythm of life. There are several tourist centers that serve the aim of health resumption. They are Ã «NarochankaÃ », Ã «Vysoky beregÃ », Ã «Braslavskie ozyoraÃ », Ã «Lesnoye ozeroÃ », Ã «Beloye ozeroÃ », Ã «LosvidoÃ », Ã «OrtaÃ », Ã «SozhÃ », Ã «NiemanÃ ». Belarus has all the facilities for those who is used to the active way of life and is fond of being challenged by hiking, cycling, horse and water travelling so you can choose what suits you more for having a good time and rest. Belarus has a gentle nature, virgin woods and calm, blue eyes of the lakes and endless fields stretching as far as eye can follow. Water tourism is becoming the most enjoyed one in Belarus, the country with more than 20 thousand rivers and 10 thousand lakes. Lakes Naroch, Svityaz and Braslav Lakes, the rivers Narochanka, Villia, Ysloch, Nieman, Shchara, Prypiats, Berezina are extremely popular waterways among the tourists. There great prospects for the water tourism will become available due to the launching of the project on the water canals of XVIII-XIX cent. restoration. They are Avgustovsky, Ogynsky canals of the Berezina water system. What is more the Dnieper-and-Bug canal will be facilitated with tourism infrastrucrure. And for this restoration the ancient waterways of polish kings and the legendary way Ã¢â¬Å"from Varagian to GreekÃ¢â¬ will come to life. The abundance of easy waterways will acquaint you with a range of main sights of the country let alone bring you a delight of rafting. There are the east to west and north to south itineraries. Another favourite itinerary that enjoys the popularity is a hike to the special nature reserve Ã¢â¬Å"Golubye ozyoraÃ¢â¬ (Blue lakes). The scenery of the two sapphires of the lakes Gloublya and Gloubelka that unfolds magnificently when you stand on the observation ground makes you stop and stare. Belarusian roads invite everyone to have amusing bike rides. This means of transport makes you feel free and careless, feel the touch with nature not breaking its fragile balance. Besides the bike-routes within the country there are some from Germany and Poland to Russia and the countries of the Baltic Sea.
Friday, August 30, 2019
Introduction Relationships differ throughout our life from birth. We have friendships which are freely chosen, we have family which establishes the growth of individuals, we have romance which is where we commit and are intimate with someone, we have professional which is on a business level. We all have relationships that stand out in our lives and a couple of them have lasted a lifetime and the others were short but left a memory that will live forever in my paper I will discuss one of the relationships where and how it started and where it still is almost thirty years later. I will also discuss the issues the relationship has been through. I will also discuss ways to manage and improve the relationship. My Relationship The relationship started approximately twenty-six years ago when I was attending middle school. The relationship started off not how the normal friendship starts off this relationship started as rivalry between my brother and my best friends sister which also led to confrontatio n after that took its course me and my best friend started talking and then from there we became a team we spent every day after school together we would giggle, play, plan, and also get into trouble as kids sometimes do. Two years into meeting I had some family problems at home and I it was decided between her parents and mine that it would be a good idea for me to live with my new friend and her family. Today we are closer than sisters talk every day at least twice once in the morning on my way to work and after work on my way home. We also argue and disagree but we always work it out. This is the longest relationship I have had outside of my family but in my eyes she is my family. Attraction and Power The short term attraction began as children as someone to laugh with, to play with, to talk to as little girls do and the closer we became we were growing and learning about ourselves and about each other and we are totally opposite in the ways we live the ways we think and the way handle things but one thing is certain we level each other out. Since we do have different ways of thinking sometimes the power struggle begins and gets ugly and we are both wrong but entitled to the way we feel and it beco mes wrong when we try to make the other do something or feel guilty for what we feel or think or what they do not want to do. The importance of attraction in the relationship is vital for the ones involved to stay interested in the relationship and to pursue continuing it after all we are self-fish humans and if the relationship becomes uninteresting or there is nothing to gain from it either emotionally, physically, or spiritually chances are the relationship will die. Along with power in a relationship there has to be respect and if the power is used negatively eventually one of the people involved will get tired and again the relationship will end. Improvement An area for improvement in this relationship is listening and respecting each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings and decisions no matter whether we agree with it or not as it our human right to feel the way we feel and no one no matter who they are has the right to disrespect it. Being open minded will help this matter and acknowledging that our feelings alone are not the only ones that count we must consider everyone involved and how they can be affected and respect the feelings they hold for the situation, which in reality is fair and is vital to maintaining a friend or significant other. Relationship Management Skills Author Daniel Goleman believes it is possible to build better relationships one step at a time. This is accomplished by focusing on six competencies in the Relationship Management domain of Emotional Intelligence. These six competencies are as follows; Inspiration, Influence, Development, Initiate change, Manage conflict, and Establish terms and collaboration. (Goleman, 2009). The two management skills I will use in my strategy to improve this relationship are skills on managing conflict and establishing terms and collaboration. Managing conflict requires the ability to be able to see other perspectives outside of your own And to find a common solution that everyone can agree on and initiate. Managing conflict will help us to be able to not get so upset and hurt where we can still voice our thoughts and opinions respect the difference if we think differently. Managing conflict will also require good listening skills and self-control this will us to hand le difficult and tense situations, see potential conflict before it starts, it will help us to have an open discussion on circumstances, and it will be more of a winning situation. (Goleman, 2009) Team work and collaboration model respect, helpfulness, and cooperation. Both work and home are happier when these conditions are met. When people work well together, turnover and the productivity of the goal ahead increases. It is well known that emotions are contagious and that if one person in a group is unhappy it can make everyone unhappy. To improve my relationship skills I will want my best friend to be able to turn towards me rather than away from me or against me so I will have self-respect and show respect to others, I will try to have communication skills including listening assertiveness, also watching my nonverbal communication (Goleman, 2009) Conclusion We are all human and communication and relationships are an everyday happening we must either communicate in a verbal or non-verbal way we must also listen with an open mind and have respect for all parties involved in order for the relationships we have to work out or to turn into a long term relationship. We cannot abuse power or others feelings they may have and we must respect others choices as a mutual respect or the relationship will not work. Managing conflict and working together will help provide a better foundation for the relationship and help it grow from short term into long term with an understanding of both parties feelings along with the thoughts involved. Meeting people and building a relationship is a process of learning, listening, accepting, identifying, and respecting each other. Relationships can be anything from just casual acquaintances or can be like the one I have with my best friend almost thirty years long and counting. We can go from friendships to intimate relationships as we learn, grow, and love. References Works Cited (2009, July 27). Retrieved May 20, 2013, from The Power of Perceptions: http://nivasameya.hubpages.com/hub/The-power-of-Perception Types of Power in a Relationship. (2013, May 21). Retrieved from http://voices.yahoo.com/types-power-relationship-34270.html Blackett, K., & Weiss, P. (2011, May 1). Safari Books Online. Retrieved May 19, 2013, from http://my.safaribooksonline.com/book/-/9781593578534/chapter-3-perception-learning-styles-and-personality/i61 Goleman, D. (2009, December 9). 5 Ways To Improve Your Realtionship Management Skills. Retrieved May 25, 2013, from http://www.articlesbase.com/business-articles/5-tips-to-improve-your-relationship-management-skills-1566932.html Knuth, R. (2004, November 4). The Negative Uses of Power. Retrieved May 21, 2013, from http://www.principals.org/portals/0/content/48192.pdf Webb, M. (2006,
1. White whiskers make Kris Kringle look like he is seventy five, but when he laughs or walks he seems to be not a day over fifty. His eyes are quick and happy, and he has a matching smile. He looks precisely like Santa Clause, and he believes he is the one. Mr. Kringle dwells in Maplewood Home for the Aged. He spends most of the time smoking his pipe or whittling the toys he has in his room. He has an uncanny way with animals. 2. Dr. Pierce is devoted to Mr. Kringle, and wants to protect him. 3. Jim likes Mr. Kringle, he is wondered at his uncanny way with animals. He has been working in the Zoo for many years already. 4. Mrs. Doris Walker is businesslike women, handsome and well-dressed. She is divorced, does not want any engagements, disappointed in close relationships. Has a daughter. 5. Mr. Shellhammer is spectacled, very much haired and bold gentleman 6. Fred Gayley is a young and attractive lawyer in one of the oldest cityÃ¢â¬â¢s firms. Fred is filled with childlike wonder and excitement. 7. Susan is a rather serious child of six. Susan is intelligent, maybe too much so for a child of her age, but with Ã¢â¬Å"no gaiety about herÃ¢â¬ . Fun is a stranger to this girl. III. Summary of chapters Dr Pierce, working in Maplewood Home for the Aged tells Kris Kringle, the dweller of this facility, that he has to move to Mount Home Sanatorium. MapplewoodÃ¢â¬â¢s charter considers Kris to be not little out of his mind, as he claims he is Santa Claus. Kris promises Dr Pierce to give him an X-ray machine, and doctor says he will believe Kris is a real Santa, if he gets one. Mr. Kringle takes his belongings and asks his friend, Jim the zookeeper to host him. While he walks in Central Park Kris sees a Christmas Parade, and a drunken Santa. Mrs. Walker, who is responsible for the personnel of the parade, asks Mr. Kringle to substitute Santa, and he agrees. When Doris Walker comes home she sees that her daughter Susan is watching the parade with their neighbor Fred, a young lawyer. She describes her problems with Santa Claus to them. Fred takes her away and tells she should not talk about Santa like that for not to disappoint Susan. Doris says girls should not have illusions, and should not wait for Prince Charming. Fred asks her to consider he may be the sort of person she needs. Doris answers that she has burnt her fingers once. V. Most Important Events of the chapters Kris Kringle leaves Mapplewood Home for the Aged. He becomes a Santa on the Christmas Parade. Doris Walker tells about her problems with Santa Clause to her daughter. Fred tries to persuade Doris he might be the man she needs, but Doris does not believe him
Thursday, August 29, 2019
American Military Bands up to the Civil War Era - Essay Example Both the Union and Confederate soldiers often engaged in recreation with songs and musical instruments. Indeed whereas songs and music that were played on the battlefields were usually intended to boost the morale of the soldiers, those that were played at night or at leisure were meant for recreation. Music as the Embodiments of Cultures and Political Ideals Both the Union and the Confederate soldiers had their own favorite music and tunes that were harmonious with their political and cultural ideals. Yet some music was enjoyed by both parties alike. One of these commonly cherished music and songs was the "I Wish I Was in Dixie" or "Dixie's Land". Though during the Civil War the song was the unofficial anthem of the Confederacy, it became commonly popular across the United States because of its unique dealings with the black peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s slavery in the country. The music won the heart of the pro-slavery southerners by its pictorial quality of presenting the black people as lazy, ignorant, superstitious, buffoonish, joyous, and musical; but for the same reason for the NorthernersÃ¢â¬â¢ the Ã¢â¬Å"DixieÃ¢â¬ was a marvelous example of proslavery culture of the Old South, offensive to a free American Identity (Silber 97). Official Approval of Military Bands Appreciating the inspirational value of music in wars, the War Department of the United States officially allocated a brass band of 24 members for every infantry and artillery regiment, and a band of 16 members for the cavalry regiments. The Confederate Army also had at least two musicians for each regiment. A survey shows that during the Civil War, about seventy five percent of the Union Army regiments had a band group and the total number of the musicians in the army was about 28,000 musicians in 618 bands. Musicians were not only meant for the entertainment of the soldiers but also for maintaining discipline and orderliness among them. Military musicians especially the buglers and drummers had to lea rn about forty nine different calls including the battle commands as well as the call for the meal. Like the buglers the drummers needed to learn about Ã¢â¬Å"39 different beats: fourteen for general use and 24 for marching cadenceÃ¢â¬ (Miller 58). Music as an Inspiration for Soldiers in the Battlefield Though in July 1861 the role of the musicians in war was ignored and dismantled under the crushing pressure of war-situation, both music and musicians played a great part in determining the fate of the war. In a letter to George F. Root Lincoln wrote a letter, "You have done more than a hundred generals and a thousand orators" (Branham 97). Union general Phillip Sheridan believed that Ã¢â¬Å"Music has done its share, and more than its share, in winning this warÃ¢â¬ (Lanning 46). Both in the battlefield and camp, musiciansÃ¢â¬â¢ influence were enormous. The surviving soldiers of bloody battlefield of PickettÃ¢â¬â¢s Charge returned singing the song Ã¢â¬Å"Nearer My God to The eÃ¢â¬ that served a spiritual compensation for the exhausted and heavily-suffering the soldiers. At the battlefield of Five Forks, Union musicians sacrificed their lives while playing Ã¢â¬Å"Nelly BlyÃ¢â¬ as a peace message at the front line of the battle under General SheridanÃ¢â¬â¢s order. Seeing the agents of peace being shot at the front line infuriated the union soldiers and helped them to become morally revamped. At the Battle of Williamsburg, Commander Samuel P. Heintzman ordered the military band to play anything that could boost
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Brain Computer Interfaces - Term Paper Example entists have always speculated that EEG might prove helpful for a completely different kind of purpose, which is infact another way of sending messages to the brain, and instructions to the outside world. Until this discovery, the control and communication system solely depended on the muscles and nerves. But with EEG, communication with out the use of muscles and nerves is achieved with the help of brain computer interface. Ã¢â¬Å"Brain computer Interfaces a new communication and control option for individuals for whom convenient options are ineffective.Ã¢â¬ Ã It provides a way of communication and control for those people who are disabled, for whom the normal way of communication is literally impossible. The goal of the BCI system is to listening to the brain, understand its intent, and then to materialize that intent without the involvement of muscles. This is the reason why BCI s is also termed as Ã¢â¬Å"mind reading technologyÃ¢â¬ (Wolpaw, R & Birbaumer, Niels p.603). The BCI system reads the Ã¢â¬Å"Electrophysiological signals reflecting brain activity, and they are acquired from the scalp, cortical surface or from within the brainÃ¢â¬ (Wolpaw, R & Birbaumer, Niels) . They are transferred to measure certain signals which help in knowing the intent of the user. These signals are converted into commands. These commands, in turn, fulfil the user intent like operating a machine, speaking something, walking in a particular direction etc. The interfaces which are Invasive are directly implanted in the brain. These are normally used in blind or paralyzed patients. The interfaces which are semi invasive are implanted inside the brain but not within the brain of an individual. Non invasive interfaces Ã¢â¬Å"record the brain signals through a neuro-imaging procedureÃ¢â¬ (Brain Computer Interfaces). Brain Computer Interfaces still have a long way to go. Researches are being conducted to understand brain functioning and to map it efficiently to an electronic device. There is no doubt
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Advances in hydrogen cell technology for automobiles - Essay Example Since 2003, Honda has been operating a 'Home Energy Station' on an experimental basis in Torrance, California. This station is works on alternative fuel technology while carrying out all the activities necessary for the home. Here hydrogen is generated from natural gas and heat and electricity requirements for the home are fulfilled using fuel cell cogeneration. Even a car in the home is powered by hydrogen cell. Such efforts have indeed shown results as well. The Carbon Dioxide emissions from such a house are stated to be 30 percent less than those for an average household that uses a gasoline and commercial electricity1. If such efforts can be matched by other fuel efficient technologies, our environment would become much more pure and the looming threat of catastrophe in the form of global warming will surely subside.The amount of carbon dioxide that melts into the atmosphere as a result of our routine actions creates footprint of carbon. In fact at times, we unknowingly tend to p erform some actions which lead to an increase in our carbon footprints on the environment, which proves detrimental for our own survival. Inefficient use of energy, inefficient housing stock, using carbon emitting fuels in our cars, rampant industrial activities etc. are the key factors being blamed for an increase in carbon footprints. The society seems to have become wiser in many ways has now started widely discussing 'how carbon footprints can be effectively reduced by adopting an energy efficient lifestyle. Hydrogen cell technology, an upgrade on hybrid electric motor, is a promising technology which will provide pollution free travel for us in near future. Efforts are on for such technology for quite some time now. The then US President George Bush had announced in 2003, an ambitious $1.7bn investment plan to turn US into a world leader for hydrogen powered automobiles (Twist, 2004). In fact the ongoing recessionary trends around the globe have impacted the automobile sector q uite adversely and in UK there are demands from many quarters to provide stimulus for its sustenance. This seems to have provided a reason to the UK government to think about greener technologies. Therefore while announcing a 2.3 billion rescue package for Britain's carmakers on January 28th Lord Mandelson commented that this is being done to pave the way for greener motor industry (Webster and Buckley, 2009). After the increasing concerns of carbon footprint, the automobile industry has experimented with a number of alternatives fuel technologies like electric vehicle, Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) etc. and these technologies have certainly helped in reducing carbon from the vehicle emissions, but the hydrogen powered vehicle produces very low or zero tail-pipe emissions (May, 2004). With governments and international bodies calling upon all concerned for reducing the carbon content, the vehicle manufactures have certainly taken a note. EU for example has proposed a target of 5.75 percent of transport fuel consumption for bio-fuels by 2010 (May, 2004, pp305). The technique involves extracting hydrogen from water or any other source. In a running vehicle the solar cells provide electric current for separating hydrogen from the stored water which is then used for producing torque for running the motor. For a vehicle, the Tandem Cell technology uses two photo-catalytic cells in series which are coated with a nano-crystalline - extremely thin - metal oxide film. These cells capture full spectrum of UV radiation from sun. The novel coating then captures the electrons and passes on to conductors as electric current. Though, Hydrogen power can also be produced from hydrocarbons, like oil and gas, or coal but in that case the byproducts or the waste also becomes a source of pollution, so this method is not used
Monday, August 26, 2019
Computer ethics and law - Essay Example To put the discussion into perspective, weÃ¢â¬â¢ll use a case study involving a computer professional and a client requiring a personnel management database system. The client chooses the least secure security system from among the list of systems provided. The computer professional clearly clarifies to the customer the security loopholes associated with the system, notable, the risk of unauthorised access to the sensitive personnel information, which might lead to compromise of personnel information by hackers, but the client insists on using it. As Bittner & Hornecker (2002, p. 1) notes, the daily routine of computer professionals provides them with unique opportunities to Ã¢â¬Å"do the right thingÃ¢â¬ as well as numerous obstacles to achieving this. However, as Norman (1988, p. 2) puts it, the Ã¢â¬Å"...design of technological artefacts should minimise risk and consequences of error.Ã¢â¬ All professional are obliged to act in such a way as to be worthy of the clientsÃ¢â¬â ¢ trust (Bayles 1989) and to ensure social responsibility in all their duties (Durbin 1992). Martin (2011) adds to this by using the words Ã¢â¬Å"pride, honor and self-respectÃ¢â¬ to describe the ideal conduct of computer professionals. In deciding the way to go, the computer professional in this case study should consider the ethical and professional provisions of the IEEE-CS/ACM Software Engineering Code of Ethics and Professional Practice as it is generally accepted as a standard documentation of software engineersÃ¢â¬â¢ ethical and professional requirements and responsibilities. The code has eight principles which Gotterbarn (2000) says are not to be considered as completely exhaustive since there is no way of telling what moral concerns may emerge in the future. They should instead act as a broad framework for professional ethics. Gotterbarn, Miller & Rogerson (1997) reiterate this saying that he IEEE-CS/ACM SECEPP is Ã¢â¬Å"not intended to be all inclusive, nor is it int ended that its individual parts be used in isolation to justify errors of omission or commissionÃ¢â¬ . At the general scale, the IEEE-CS/ACM SECEPP stresses on the engineering professionÃ¢â¬â¢s obligation to the public whose health, welfare and safety should take precedence and indeed form the basis of the eight principles of the SECEPP. The Ã¢â¬Å"PublicÃ¢â¬ principle is of particular relevance to our case study. Gotterbarn (1999) argues that computer professionals have substantial chances Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦to do good or cause harmÃ¢â¬ and to aid and influence others to do the same. The principle of Public however requires software engineers to put the public interest first. Not only does this principle hold software engineers responsible for their decisions. In that context, they are required to balance the needs of all the parties (employer, customer, and themselves) with the welfare and safety of the public. This empowers the software engineers to disapprove any software o r component of an IT system that might threaten privacy, degrade the environment, compromise the quality of human life and is especially critical in the manufacture of safety-critical software; computer software whose failure or error can cause directly
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Tuesdays with Morrie - Essay Example Therefore, MorrieÃ¢â¬â¢s point is that once one learns and accepts that death is a reality that is going to happen at some point in life, one learns to live life fully enjoying every moment as it comes without any regrets (Albom, 2005). Throughout the chapter on death, Morrie makes frequent reference to this quote emphasizing the importance for all humanity to accept death, and the subsequent benefits generated from such acceptance for the remainder of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life. Morrie emphasize acceptance of death and learning to live with this reality so that Mitch can understand how Morrie is able to value the smaller, more genuine aspects of life bearing in mind that death was approaching. Although Morrie made this statement when he was terminally ill, this it can be generalized to the lives of every human being since death is a reality that is bound to occur to everyone who is still alive. Therefore, healthy individuals can enjoy a life full of happiness and contentment when they live each day as if it were the last. This approach to life will result in a state where each life experience is embraced memorably, passionately and powerfully. People will be able to experience living as a gift to be seized and taken advantage of fully. Morrie points out that Ã¢â¬Å"everybody knows they are going to die," he said again, "but nobody believes itÃ¢â¬ (Pg 91 M) and that most people are busy doing their activities but they are actually Ã¢â¬Å"half asleepÃ¢â¬ (Pg 43 M). These statements relate to being prepared for death as it illustrates peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude towards death. There are people who live like robots without having a personal goal in life while taking everything that life has to offer for granted. This can also be said of people who are used to routine and habitual way of life by doing the same things daily to the extent that it has becomes a tradition to them. For such people, accepting the limited nature of life will go a long way in making them enjoy life by
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Death of a salesman- willy recalls his sons teenage years as fruitfull and charming. what evindence canwe find to show that the - Essay Example The form of illusion highlighted here may be termed as self-deception. Though Willy himself was never a big success and even at the age of sixty he had to borrow money from Charley to pay his bills, he is inquisitive and critical of his son Biff. Willy was critical of the fact that Biff has not yet Ã¢â¬Å"found himselfÃ¢â¬ which was a disgrace. He seems to be oblivious to the fact that even he was not half as successful as Biff at that age. When Linda tells him not to be too critical of Biff since he admires him, Willy tells her, Ã¢â¬Å"I simply asked him if he was making any money. Is that a criticism?" (Miller 7) This shows his over consciousness regarding money matters and a reader who is not introduced to WillyÃ¢â¬â¢s state of mind and existence would think that he was perhaps a very successful businessman himself. This reflects a very significant symptom of the disease - confusion and illusions that lead to unorganized thinking. In fact he is to a large extent responsible f or his sonsÃ¢â¬â¢ (Biff and Happy) immaturity and slow emotional development as he pampers them during their teenage years and tells them the importance of appearance over substance showing them the dreams of high promises held by their future. He recalls that Biff had a promising teenage but he lost many opportunities and hence could not make anything out of life. This also reveals his evasion from admitting that he is failure as a father. Biff has grown up admiring his father more by his words than actions. He has not been a successful student and failed in Math. Bernard, the son of WillyÃ¢â¬â¢s friend Charlie has always been a good grade achiever but according to Willy Charlie is not well liked like himself and following the same Biff responds to his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s query about WillyÃ¢â¬â¢s popularity, saying that he is liked but not Ã¢â¬Å"well likedÃ¢â¬ . Willy even brags to his wife, saying that even though Bernard, the son of his friend gets good grades in schools, he cannot grow into a successful businessman unlike Biff and Happy. WillyÃ¢â¬â¢s comments at this juncture is worth taking a deeper reading, Ã¢â¬Å"Bernard can get the best marks in school, yÃ¢â¬â¢understand, but when he gets out in the business world, yÃ¢â¬â¢understand, you are going to be five times ahead of him. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s why I thank Almighty God youÃ¢â¬â¢re both built like Adonises. Because the man who makes an appearance in the business world, the man who creates personal interest, is the man who gets ahead. Be liked and you will never want. You take me, for instance. I never have to wait in line to see a buyer.Ã¢â¬ (Miller 21) The above lines expresses his self boasting nature and setting a wrong example in front of his son Biff who ends up idolizing his father and following the wrong way. Staying around his father with a doting wife his sons cannot see his faults and all they end up learning is to give importance to appearance. Biff who has grown up with the habi t of a Kleptomaniac never faces his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s disapproval when he lies about borrowing the things which he actually ends up stealing. When Willy tells Biff to study, the latter shows him the emblem of his University of Virginia he created on his sneakers. Bernard points out that those sneakers cannot obtain good grades for him. He also says, Ã¢â¬Å"I heard Mr. Birnbaum say that if you donÃ¢â¬â¢t start studyinÃ¢â¬â¢ math heÃ¢â¬â¢s gonna flunk you, and you wonÃ¢â¬â¢t graduate. I heard him!Ã¢â¬ (Miller 20) Finally Willy ends up shunning away Bernard saying, Ã¢â¬Å"
Friday, August 23, 2019
Energy Drinks - Essay Example Energy drinks contains caffeine which provides stamina and increases the physical performance to the consumers. In natural form, caffeine is a bitter tasting drug but most of the energy drinks are processed to cover the bitter taste. Caffeine is contained in drinks like chocolate, coffee, tea and many other soft drinks, it also found in many over the counter medications especially the painkillers. Caffeine is usually eliminated from the body very rapidly though its effects may last for about six hours. Caffeine and other ingredients of energy drinks stimulate the central nervous system thereby improving the metabolic reactions of the body, hence they are used recreationally and medically to restore mental awareness. When the central nervous system is stimulated, the brain tends to function faster due to improved flow of thought, increased alertness and better coordination of the body and in excess the effects flow to the spinal cord (Han et al 2007, 499). The energy drinks has several other ingredients that include taurine and glucuronolactone apart from caffeine. Taurine is a type of an amino acid that is found naturally in the human body and is a very important building block for proteins. Many people rely on energy drinks to replace the lost taurine, as in taurine is lost in times of stress in small amounts leading to some sort of deficiency (Craig & Stitzel 2008, 219). The taurine amino acids are believed to be antitoxic substances that cleanse the body of harmful substances. Glucuronolactone is carbohydrate metabolite that also occurs naturally in the body though it can be synthesized artificially, it provides instant energy boost since it's a carbohydrate formed from glucose catabolism and its also believed to cleanse the body of harmful substances. The body's homeostasis system is designed to maintain constancy in the body, upon consumption of caffeine; the body reacts to it to try and neutralize the effects of the caffeine through the process termed metabolism or catabolism to be precise. Caffeine is totally absorbed in the stomach and the small intestines within the first thirty minutes after ingestion. Following absorption, caffeine is metabolized into three compounds; theobromine, paraxanthine and theophyline with the latter constituting the smaller percentage while paraxanthine comprising the largest percentage about 84% (Craig & Stitzel 2008, 223). Metabolism takes place in the liver with the use of enzyme system called cytochrome P450 oxidase; paraxathine breaks down lipids into fatty acids and glycerol in a process called lipolysis, theobromine is alkaloid that is also a vasodilator and therefore dilates blood vessels and hence increases urine formation, and thoephylline is a smooth muscle relaxant and a diuretic (Craig & Stitzel 2008, 226). The three compounds are further metabolized before excretion. For the body to get rid of the foreign particles in the body, caffeine and its by-products have to be eliminated and are usually excreted following the
Thursday, August 22, 2019
The Disagreement on Human nature among the Greatest Philosophers - Article Example Plato gave his Allegory of the Cave explaining this habitual nature (Soccio 141). A man lives all his life in a cave, he considers his environment as the only reality as if nothing exists outside of it. On exposing him to the sunlight, this person thinks he is dreaming, that the fresh air, green grass, and the singing birds are hallucinations. The habitual nature of human is PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s version. Aristotle and Kant, on the other hand, focused more on how humans should behave; the maxim behind every action. Aristotle gave two levels of human behavior the one where he only acts like a man and the other where he acts as if there is a divine spirit within him, thus achieving a life higher than mere human nature (Aristotle 191). This is very different from PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s narrative because Kant implies that man by nature is evil or corrupt therefore he has to conform to the moral law in order to live a better life. He is not simply a product of its environment, he is inherently corrupt. It is hard to pick one theory and reject the other. It will also be negating the introduction that there is no absolute truth or knowledge. In KantÃ¢â¬â¢s theory, there is space for spirituality. There must be divine authority overseeing manÃ¢â¬â¢s activities. Plato, on the other hand, is more supportive of nurture as opposed to nature. Kant considers human nature as a composition of feelings, one relation and cognition, and these aspects are governed by a priory prescribed by a Ã¢â¬Å"higher cognitive powerÃ¢â¬ (Frierson 13) Descartes is also in agreement with Kant that there is a divine authority. And hence man has a defined nature. RenÃ © Descartes's held anti-elitist and egalitarian views on human nature (Lopston 24). It also implies that considering this premise one has to accept that humans have been created as part of a grand design.
The Da Vinci Code Essay Robert and Sophie will crack cryptexÃ¢â¬â¢s and anagrams with number puzzles, run from the police, and cheat death in this amazing book. For example for one of the codes they have to crack the key opens a safe deposit box at the Paris branch of the Depository Bank of Zurich. Saunieres account number turns out to be 10 digits. The digits of the first eight Fibonacci numbers: 1 1 2 3 5 8 13 21. If you like this, there are many more to come. Second of All, why I think people should read this book is because, this book has lots of information in the pages about Christianity, Da Vinci, and a lot more. So if youÃ¢â¬â¢re in to learning about things while you read this is definitely the book you should read. The ultimate solution is found to be intimately connected with the possible location of the Holy Grail. This all also ties in with the history of Christianity and it ties in with Da Vinci. If you think all this information is interesting wait till you read this information filled book. Last but Certainly Not Least, why I think people should read this book is because, of this fantastic story line they used in this book. The novel has several concurrent subplots interweaving the lives of different characters. Eventually, all the characters are brought together and the sub-plots resolved in the main plot at the end of the book. There is nothing that would make this story plot more amazing. The fact that it is like a detective case because, Bezu suspects Robert Langdon as a suspect of killing Sauniere in the gallery is just so genius. In conclusion, I think people should read this book for these reasons: this book is a suspenseful and thrilling novel, this book has lots of information in the pages, and last the fantastic story line they used in this book. If any of these reasons interest you I recommend this book to you. In fact, I suggest you go to your local book store and pick up this book. A little information never hurt anyone. Some Info. On Dan Brown Dan Brown was born on June 22, 1964. He grew up in Exeter, New Hampshire. He is the author of numerous best-selling novels, including the 1 New York Times bestseller, Ã¢â¬Å"The Da Vinci CodeÃ¢â¬ . One of the best selling novels of all time. It was published early in early 2004 by Bantam Press.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Two Middle Range Theory Evaluation Paper The purpose of this paper is to evaluate two middle range theories abilities to test the concept of comfort for the practice question Do neonatal nurses who care for dying infants who attend an end of life care educational training program compared to neonatal nurses who do not attend the program experience a difference in comfort levels (Comfort Level for Caring for Dying Infants (CLCDI)) when caring for a dying infant? A summary of two middle range theories the Comfort Theory (Kolcaba, 1994) and the Theory of Self-Efficacy (Resnick, xxxx) will be summarized and then critiqued using Smith and Liehrs (xxxx) Framework for Evaluating Middle Range Theory. The discussion will conclude with a summary of strengths and weakness of the theories and a research hypothesis to reflect that reflects the most appropriate theories conceptual definitions and propositions. Introduction Background Despite nurses as frontline caregivers for dying patients and their families many nurses have identified that they struggle with the responding adequately to the emotional devastation to parents and siblings when caring for a neonate with an unresolved terminal condition (Frommet, 1991). With the advances in neonatal care and life sustaining treatments, sick and very preterm infants do not often die in utero, at birth, or shortly after birth, but instead they often live much longer in a healthcare paradigm of comfort care and dignified death. This relatively new emersion of the end of life model integrates a more holistic approach which considers a more comprehensive view of the patients needs (emotional, spiritual, and medical) (Mallory, 2002; Mallory, 2003; WHO, 2002). With this paradigm shift, health care professionals are obligated to assess the adequacy of their own knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about death and dying. Multiple studies regarding nurses preparation for dealing with death and dying have consistently found that nurses that nurses do not feel educationally prepared to care for dying patients and insist that healthcare professionals should receive additional education on end of life care to bridge the deficit gap (Frommet, 1991; Robinson, 2004; White, Coyne, Patel, 2001; Beckstrand, Callister, Kirchhoff, 2006). These findings have led to a further observation that nurses caring for these complex patients regularly experience moral distress from competing principles of their personal, collegial, organizational, and religious/spiritual ethics (Frommet, 1991). Practice Problem To help ease this moral distress an evidence based end-of -life educational training program for NICU nurses has been successfully implemented in several neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) to increase the nurses comfort level of caring for neonates and their families at the end of life (Bagbi, Rogers, Gomez, McMahon, 2008). To determine if an evidence based end of life educational program impacts nurses comfort levels in caring for dying infants and their families a question was developed using the population (P) intervention (I) compared to (C) outcome (O) format (Newhouse, Dearhold, 1997). The following discussion will focus on this PICO question Do neonatal nurses who care for dying infants who attend an end of life care educational training program compared to neonatal nurses who do not attend the program experience a difference in comfort levels (Comfort Level for Caring for Dying Infants (CLCDI)) when caring for a dying infant? During the intervention a monthly 1 hour, neo natal end of life education program will be conducted over a 6 month period of time based on research about what nurses would like to know about caring for a dying infant (Robinson, 2004). For the purpose of this problem, comfort is defined as the ability of the NICU nurse(s) to show adequate knowledge and skills in providing neonatal end of life care for dying babies and their families. For this problem comfort will be measured as a score on the ordinal scale of Comfort Level Caring for Dying Infants (CLCDI). The instrument consisting of 15 items, measured on a 5 point Likert type scale equates scores of 1=never; 2=rarely; 3=sometimes; 4=often, 5=always measures the level of comfort a NICU nurse has caring for dying infants as opposed to their perception toward pediatric or neonatal end of life care (Bagbi, Rogers, Gomez, and McMahon, 2008). In evaluating the score, the higher the reported score the greater level of comfort NICU nurses have in caring for dying babies. Testing the Concept of Comfort A portion of Kolbacas (1991) Theory of Comfort and Resnicks (2008) Theory of Self-Efficacy, two middle range theories, will be used to test the concept of comfort for providing an organizing structure. Based on previous studies about nurses comfort when caring for patients, propositions five and six of Kolbacas Theory of Comfort seem to be a promising fit for this problem (Kolbaca, 1991, Kolbaca, XXX). These propositions collectively propose that patients, nurses, and other members of the healthcare team agree upon desirable and realistic health seeking behaviors (HSBs) and if enhanced comfort is achieved, patients, family members, and/or nurses are strengthened to engage in HSBs, comfort is further enhanced (Kolbaca, 1991). However, comfort as defined conceptually in this case as knowledge and skill can alternatively be equated with a sense of competence or self-efficacy of the NICU nurse to care for a dying infant and their family. There are many examples in the nursing literature linking self-efficacy to knowledge and skill (xxxx, xxxxx).) Self-efficacy, knowledge, and skills are also central to Banduras theory, which is the basis for Resnicks (xxxx) Self-Efficacy theory. Self-efficacy as described in Resnicks (xxxx) Theory of Self-Efficacy for this context is described as the judgment about the nurses ability to organize and execute a course of action required to attain designated types of performances. The theory states that perceived self-efficacy, defined as the individuals judgment of his or her capabilities to organize and execute courses of action, is a determinant of performance (Resnick, xxxx). Self-efficacy beliefs provide the foundation for human motivation, well-being, and personal accomplishment (Resnick, xxxx). According to Resnick (XXXX) theory individuals with higher levels of self-efficacy for a specific behavior (caring for a dying infant) are more likely to attempt that behavior. There are many examples in the literature using the Theory o f Self-Efficacy to support nursing education interventions (xxxxx, xxxxx). For these reasons, Resnicks Theory of Self-Efficacy (xxx) will be used to test the concept of nurses comfort or knowledge and skill (self-efficacy) in caring for dying infants and their families. The purpose of the following discussion is to summarize, describe, analyze, and evaluate these theories using the Framework for the Evaluation of Middle Range Theories (Smith, 2008) and conclude with a synthesis and research hypothesis to reflect conceptual definitions and propositions of the theory with the best fit. Theory Summaries: Comfort and Self-Efficacy Kolcabas Comfort Theory The Comfort Theory is a humanistic, holistic, patient need based nursing derived middle range theory (Kolbaca, xxxx). The concept of comfort has had a historic and consistent presence in nursing. In the early 1900s , comfort was considered to be a goal for both nursing and medicine, as it was believed that comfort led to recovery (McIlveen Morse, 1995). Over time comfort has become an increasingly minor focus, at times reserved only for those patients for whom no further medical treatment options are available (McIlveen Morse, 1995). The term comfort is used as a noun (comforter), adjective (comforting), verb (to comfort), or adverb (comfort the patient) (xxx). It is also used as a negative (absence of discomfort), neutral (ease), or positive (hope inspiring). Webster (1990) defines comfort as relief from distress; to soothe in sorrow or distress; a person or thing that comforts; a state of ease and quiet enjoyment free from worry; anything that makes life easy; and the lessening of misery or grief by calming or inspiring with hope. The origin of comfort is confortrare which means to strengthen greatly(Kolcaba, 1992). Based on the diversity of these terms comfort is a complex term. Kolcabas (1991) concept analysis of comfort helped to clarify the role of comfort as a holistic concept for nursing. This review confirmed that comfort is a positive concept and is associated with activities that nurture and strengthen patients (David, 2002). Over a period of years and revisions Kolcaba (1994) developed the comfort the ory which continues to evolve and change with changes as recent as 2007 (Figure 2). Kolcaba (1994, 2001, 2003) has defined comfort as the immediate state of being strengthened through having the human needs for relief, ease, and transcendence addressed in four contexts of experience (physical, psychospiritual, sociocultural, and environmental). The terms relief, ease, and transcendence are types of comfort that occur physically and mentally (Figure 2). The terms are defined based on definitions from medicine, theology, ergonomics, psychology, and nursing (Kolcaba Kolcaba, 1991). Relief is the state of having a discomfort mitigated or alleviated. Ease is the absence of specific discomforts. Transcendence is the ability to rise above discomforts when they cannot be eradicated or avoided (e.g., the child feels confident about ambulation although (s)he knows it will exacerbate pain). Transcendence, as a type of comfort, accounts for its strengthening property and reminds nurses to never give up helping their children and family members feel comforted. Interventions for increasing transcendence can be targeted to improving the environment, increasing social support, or providing reassurance. The three types of comfort occur in four contexts of experience: physical, psychospiritual, sociocultural, and environmental. These contexts were derived from an extensive review of the nursing literature on holism (Kolcaba, 1992). When the three types of comfort are juxtaposed with the four contexts of experience, a 12-cell grid is created, which is called a taxonomic structure (TS) (Figure 1) . Taken together, these cells represent all relevant aspects (defining attributes) of comfort for nursing and demonstrate the holistic nature of comfort as an important goal of care. All comfort needs can be placed somewhere on the taxonomic structure, and the cells are not mutually exclusive. A sample pediatric case study using the TS as a guide for a holistic comfort assessment is demonstrated below (see Figure 1). The concepts for the middle range for Comfort Theory include comfort needs, comfort interventions, intervening variables, enhanced comfort, health-seeking behaviors, and institutional integrity (Kolcaba, 1994). All of these concepts are relative to patients, families, and nurses (Kolcaba, 2003; Kolcaba, Tilton, Drouin, 2006). There are eight propositions which link the above concepts together. All or parts of the Comfort Theory can be tested for research (Peterson Bredow, 2010). In the comfort theory, Kolcaba asserts that when healthcare needs of a patient are appropriately assessed and proper nursing interventions carried out to address those needs, taking into account variables intervening in the situation, the outcome is enhanced patient comfort over time (Kolcaba, 2007). Once comfort is enhanced, the patient is likely to increase health-seeking behaviors. These behaviors may be internal to the patient (eg, wound healing or improved oxygenation), external to the patient (eg, active participation in rehabilitation exercises), or a peaceful death. Furthermore, Kolcaba asserted that when a patient experiences health-seeking behaviors, the integrity of the institution is subsequently increased because the increase in health-seeking behaviors will result in improved outcomes. Increased institutional integrity lends itself to the development and implementation of best practices and best policies secondary to the positive outcomes experienced by patients (Kolcab a, 2007). To translate the concepts to practice the effectiveness of a holistic intervention can be targeted to the taxonomic structure for enhancing comfort in a specific patient, family, or nurse population over time. Holistic comfort is defined as the immediate experience of being strengthened through having the needs for relief, ease, and transcendence met in four contexts of experience (physical, psychospiritual, social, and environmental).The comfort theory has been operationalized in many research settings with a variety of patient and target populations ranging from end of life care to the comfort of nurses (xxxx). Resnick Theory of Self-Efficacy Self efficacy is described as a way to organize an individuals judgment of his or her capability to execute a course of action. The Theory of Self-efficacy states that self-efficacy expectations and outcome expectations are not only influenced by behavior, but also verbal encouragement, reflective thinking, physiological sensations and role or self-modeling (Bandura, 1995).. Through self evaluation an individual judges their capability to perform and established self expectations which is visually depicted in the conceptual model (Appendix 2) (Resnick, 2008). Resnicks Theory of Self Efficacy is based on Banduras social cognitive theory and conceptualizes person-behavior-environment as triadic reciprocity the foundation for reciprocal determinism (Bandura, 1977, 1986). Most of the research into self-efficacy beliefs among older adults has been quantitative and has consistently supported the influence of those beliefs on behavior. However, it has not been established how efficacy beliefs actually influence motivation in older adults, or what sources of efficacy-enhancing information help strengthen those beliefs. Kolcabas Comfort Theory: Description, Analysis, and Evaluation Theory Description Historical context. The Comfort Theory is a humanistic, holistic, patient need based nursing derived middle range theory (Kolbaca, xxxx). The concept of comfort has had a historic and consistent presence in nursing. In the early 1900s , comfort was considered to be a goal for both nursing and medicine, as it was believed that comfort led to recovery (McIlveen Morse, 1995). Over time comfort has become an increasingly minor focus, at times reserved only for those patients for whom no further medical treatment options are available (McIlveen Morse, 1995). The term comfort is used as a noun (comforter), adjective (comforting), verb (to comfort), or adverb (comfort the patient) (xxx). It is also used as a negative (absence of discomfort), neutral (ease), or positive (hope inspiring). Webster (1990) defines comfort as relief from distress; to soothe in sorrow or distress; a person or thing that comforts; a state of ease and quiet enjoyment free from worry; anything that makes life easy; and the lessening of misery or grief by calming or inspiring with hope. The origin of comfort is confortrare which means to strengthen greatly(Kolcaba, 1992). Based on the diversity of these terms comfort is a complex term. Kolcabas (1991) concept analysis of comfort helped to clarify the role of comfort as a holistic concept for nursing. This review confirmed that comfort is a positive concept and is associated with activities that nurture and strengthen patients (David, 2002). Over a period of years and revisions Kolcaba (1994) developed the comfort the ory which continues to evolve and change with changes as recent as 2007 (Figure 2). Structural Components. Assumptions. Kolcabas Theory of Comfort (1994) makes four basic assumptions about reality. She assumes that humans beings have holistic responses to complex stimuli; comfort is a desirable holistic state that is germane to the discipline of nursing; human beings actively strive to meet, or to have met, their basic comfort needs, and that comfort is more than the absence of pain, anxiety, and other physical discomforts (Kolcaba , 2009). Concepts. Kolcaba defines six concepts of comfort which are relative to patients, families, and nurses (Table 1) . The term family, as defined by Kolcaba (2003) encompasses significant others as determined by the patient (Kolcaba, 2003; Kolcaba, Tilton Drouin, 2006). The first concept is of comfort needs which is the relief/ease/transcendence in physical, psychospiritual, sociocultural and environmental contexts of human experience. Comfort interventions in the model are defined as interventions of the health care team specifically targeting comfort of the patient, family and nurses. Intervening variables are positive or negative factors over which the health care team has little control, including physical limitations of the hospital or patients home, cultural influences, socioeconomic factors, prognosis, concurrent medical or psychological conditions. Health-seeking behaviors are those behaviors of patient, family or nurses (conscious or unconscious) which promote well-being; may b e internal, external or towards promoting a peaceful death. The final concept, institutional integrity, added in most recently, are values, financial stability and wholeness of health care facilities at the local state or national levels. Propositions. To help test the concept of nurses comfort caring for dying infants, propositions five and six of Kolcabas comfort theory are examined. These propositions state that patients, nurses, and other members of the healthcare team agree upon desirable and realistic health seeking behaviors (HSBs) (five) and if enhanced comfort is achieved, patients, family members, and/or nurses are strengthened to engage in HSBs, which further enhances comfort (six). These propositions provide rationale for why nurses and other health care professionals should focus on the patient, family, or in this case the nurses comfort beyond altruistic reasons. Because health seeking behaviors include internal and external behaviors almost any health-related outcome important in a healthcare setting can be classified as a health seeking behavior (Peterson Bredow, 2010). The desirable and realistic health seeking behavior (HSB) for this study is nurses comfort (knowledge and skills) to relieve moral di stress in caring for a dying infant and their family. Several studies support that moral and other types of distress are frequently observed in nurses who care for dying infants (Frommet, 1991) and most importantly indicate that nurses are seeking education regarding patient end of life issues (XXXXX). It is believed that reducing this distress and frustration can be affected through an effective end of life educational programs and is likely to improve the knowledge and skills nurses need to help increase their comfort level in caring for dying infants (xxxxx). Functional Components. Visualizing the concepts in the conceptual model, the Theory Analysis and Evaluation To analyze and evaluate Kolcabas Comfort Theory (1994) the substantive foundation, structural integrity, and functional adequacy of the theory using Smith and Liehrs (2008) Framework for the Evaluation of Middle Range Theories is discussed below (Appendix 1). Substantive foundations. Assessing the substantive foundation of a middle range theory is based on four criteria (Smith, 2003). The first criterion evaluates whether the theory is within the focus of the discipline of nursing. Kolcabas comfort theory successfully addresses four concepts comprising the metaparadigm of nursing, defining the concepts as they correspond to the theory (Dowd, 2002; Kolbaca, 2007) as well as presents a diagram of how the Comfort Theory relates theoretically to other nursing concepts (Figure 2) (Kolcaba, 1994) . Nursing is described as the process of assessing the patients comfort needs, developing and implementing appropriate nursing interventions, and evaluating patient comfort following nursing interventions. Person is described as the recipient of nursing care; the patient may be an individual, family, institution, or community. Environment is considered to be the external surroundings of the patient and can be manipulated to increase patient comfort. Fi nally, health is viewed as the optimum functioning of the patient as they define it. The ability of the framework to suggest interventions that help guide nursing interventions to increase comfort supports the discipline of nursing, and in doing so meeting the first criteria. The second criterion evaluates whether the assumptions are specified and congruent with the focus. The four assumptions in the Comfort Theory are explicitly stated and so meet the second criteria. Comfort theory (xxxx) assumes that humans beings have holistic responses to complex stimuli; comfort is a desirable holistic state that is germane to the discipline of nursing; human beings actively strive to meet, or to have met, their basic comfort needs, and that comfort is more than the absence of pain, anxiety, and other physical discomforts (Kolcaba , 2009). Because the Comfort Theory (XXXX) substantially describes the concept of comfort at the middle range level of discourse, the third criterion of the substantive foundation is met. Kolcabas (1991) concept analysis of comfort helped to clarify the role of comfort as a holistic concept for nursing. This review confirmed that comfort is a positive concept and is associated with activities that nurture and strengthen patients (David, 2002). The Comfort Theory provides an excellent description, explanation, and interpretation of the comfort concept in multiple domains and practice settings. Comfort theory is at the middle range level in that is defined in a measurable way and can be operationalized in both research and practice settings. The final criterion for this category evaluates if the origins are rooted in practice and research experience. The Comfort Theory has been used in numerous practice and research settings to provide a framework where patients have comfort needs and enhancing their comfort is valued. It has also been used to enhance working environments, especially for nurses, and most recently as a framework for working toward national institutional recognitions. More specifically parts are all of the theory have been used to test the effectiveness of holistic interventions for increasing comfort (xxxxxxx), to demonstrate the correlation between comfort and subsequent HSBs (xxxxx) and to relate HSBs to desirable institutional outcomes. It has also been used as a framework for helping families make difficult decisions about end of life (xxxxx). International and national healthcare institutions have also used Comfort Theory to enhance the work environment for nurses (xxxx). In these cases, nurses comfo rt is of interest and is theoretically related to the integrity of the institution. Summarize specific studies and tools used here. Structural integrity. There are four criterion for evaluating structural integrity. The first criterion is that the concepts are well defined. The concepts (defined above) of comfort needs, comfort interventions, intervening variables, enhanced comfort, health-seeking behaviors, and institutional integrity are clearly defined and easy to understand. There are numerous examples of applying the concepts in the literature for further clarification (xxxxx). The second criterion of structural integrity is that concepts within the theory are at the middle range level of abstraction. The concepts of the Comfort Theory-comfort needs, comfort interventions, intervening variables, enhanced comfort, health seeking behaviors, and institutional integrity are near the same level on the ladder of abstraction at the middle range level. They are more concrete because they can and have been operationalized and measured (xxxxx). The third criterion of structural integrity is that there are no more concepts than needed to explain the phenomena. Overall, the concepts adequately explain the phenomena of comfort. The theory is synthesized and organized in a simple manner. Lastly, the fourth criterion evaluates whether the concepts and relationships among the concepts are logically presented with a model. In the Comfort Theory (1994) model the ideas are integrated to create an understanding of the whole phenomenon of comfort in a model. The Comfort Theory (1994) model is a great example of presenting the concepts and statements in a linear logical order so the appreciation of the theory can be recognized (Smith, 2003). Functional adequacy. Because the criterion for functional adequacy overlap somewhat the five criterion will be discussed collectively. The five criterion include: theory can be applied to a variety of practice environments and clients; empirical indicators have been identified; published examples exist of research and theory in practice; and that the theory has evolved through scholarly inquiry. The Comfort Theory easily meets all of these criterions. For example, the Comfort Theory has been used widely in a variety of research in practice settings and patient and family populations. Even though the Comfort Theory has been used most widely with patients and families at the end of life and surrounding holistic palliative care nursing interventions, there has been a broad application of the theory in other populations as well including mothers in labor (xxxx), Alzheimer patients (xxxx), pediatric intensive care unit patients and families (xxxx), patients on bedrest (xxxx), those underg oing radiation therapy (xxxx) and for infants comfort and pain (xxxx). Most recently research of using the theory in practice has expanded to support institutional nursing recognition and comfort in the nursing working environment. In each of the populations mentioned above a psychometric comfort instrument has been developed as empirical indicators of concepts in the theory. However, the empirical indicators extend beyond empiricism and some include perceptions, self reports, observable behaviors and biological indicators (Ford-Gibloe, Campbell, Berman, 1995; Reed, 1995). The Comfort Theory (1994) has also been revised with the latest revision in 2007. The empirical adequacy of the Comfort Theory is evidence of the maturity of this theory (Smith, 2003). Summary The Comfort Theory (1994) is a well defined and well tested theory. Its strength lies in the versatility, adaptability, and testability of the concepts. The comfort theory clearly defines the concepts in the theory and the relationship between them. Because the comfort theory meets most of the substantitive foundations, structural integrity, and functional adequacy criteria the Comfort Theory (1994) is a strong middle range theory. An area that could increase the generalizability especially for nursing institutions is a change in the term in the model of nursing interventions to comfort interventions (xxxxx). Resnicks Self-Efficacy Theory: Description, Analysis, and Evaluation Theory Description Historical context. Resnicks Theory of Self Efficacy is based on Banduras social cognitive theory and conceptualizes person-behavior-environment as triadic reciprocity the foundation for reciprocal determinism (Bandura, 1977, 1986). The cognitive appraisal of these factors results in a perception of a level of confidence in the individuals ability to perform a certain behavior. The positive performance of this behavior reinforces self-efficacy expectations (Bandura, 1995). Structural Components. Although it is not explicitly stated, the core of this theory assumes that people can consciously change and develop or control their behavior. This is important to the proposition that self-efficacy also can be changed or enhanced through reflective thought, general knowledge, skills to perform a specific behavior, and self influence. This perspective is rooted in the model of triadic reciprocality (foundation for reciprocal determinism) in which personal determinants (self-efficacy), environmental conditions (treatment conditions) and action (practice) are mutually interactive influences. Therefore, improving performance depends on changing some of these influences (Bandura, 1977). In order to determine self-efficacy an individual must have the opportunity for self evaluation to evaluate how likely it is he or she can achieve a given level of performance. Concepts. The two major components of self efficacy include self-efficacy expectations and outcome expectations (Table 2). Self-efficacy expectations are judgments about the personal ability to accomplish a given task. Outcome expectations are judgments about what will happen if a given task is accomplished. These two components are differentiated because individuals can believe a certain behavior will result in a specific outcome, however, they may not believe they are capable of performing the behavior required for the outcome to occur (Bandura 1977, 1986). For example, a NICU nurse may believe attending an end of life education series will increase his/her knowledge and skill and ease moral distress, but may not believe that they could provide sensitive care for some ethical, religious, or moral reason. It is generally anticipated, but not always realistic that self-efficacy will have a positive impact on behavior. There are times when self-efficacy will have no or a negative impa ct on performance (Vancouver, Thomspon, Williams, 2001). Bandura (1977, 1986, 1997) suggests that outcome expectations are based largely on the individuals self-efficacy expectations, which generally depend on their judgment about how well they can perform the behavior; can be disassociated with self-efficacy expectations; and are partially separable from self-efficacy judgments when extrinsic outcomes are fixed. Because the outcomes an individual expects are the results of the judgments about what he or she can accomplish, they are unlikely to contribute to predictions of behavior (Bandura, 1977). Judgments about ones self-efficacy is based on four informational sources including enactive attainment, vicarious experience, verbal persuasion and physiological state. The first source, enactive attainment, or the actual performance of a behavior has been described as the most influential source of self-efficacy information (Bandura, 1986,; Bandura Adams, 1977). There has been repeated empirical evidence that actually performing an activity strengthens self-efficacy beliefs due to informational sources (Bandura, 1995). The second source, vicarious experience or visualizing other similar people perform a behavior, also influence self-efficacy (Bandura, Adams, Hardy, Howells, 1980). Conditions that impact vicarious experience include amount of exposure or experience to the behavior (least experience causes greater impact) and amount of instruction given (influence of others is greater with unclear guidelines) (Resnick Galik, 2006). Another source verbal persuasion or exhortation i nvolves telling an individual he or she has the capabilities to master the given behavior. Verbal encouragement from a trusted, credible source in counseling or education form has been used alone to strengthen efficacy expectations (Castro, King, Brassington, 2001; Hitunen et al. 2005; Moore et al., 2006; Resnick, Simpson, et al., 2006). The final information source physiological feedback or state during a behavior can be important in relation to coping with stressors, health functioning, and physical accomplishments. Interventions can be used to alter the interpretation of physiological feedback and help individuals cope with physical sensations, enhancing self efficacy and resulting in improved performance (Bandura Adams, 1977). Propositions. To help test the concept of nurses comfort caring for dying infa
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
An Analysis Of The Genesis 22 Religion Essay The chapter begins with a pattern of introduction that usually suggests a new wave in the trend of events. And it came to pass after these things, that God did tempt AbrahamÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦. In verse 20, the same introduction is used in stating that Abrahams brother Nahor had been born children by Milcah. It is known from the onset that God is testing Abraham. The primary aim of the test is to teach Abraham that obedience and commitment are vital to keeping covenants. Obedience to covenant obligations brings guarantee of the fulfilment of Gods promises and fresh bestowal of the blessings that go with covenant keeping. God calls Abraham to take his son Isaac, whom he loves very much to a land which he will show him and offer him for a burnt offering (verse 2). The practice of human sacrifice in ancient near-eastern society is here revealed. In verse 3, Abraham obeys Gods command without any grudges, rising up early in the morning and taking along with him the persons and materials needed to perform the sacrifice. His response to Gods call Behold, here I am shows Abraham has entrusted his future and life into Gods hands. He makes himself totally available for Gods purpose. The prophet Isaiah showed a similar attitude in his vision. Abraham surrenders totally to God knowing he was going to be the founding father of Israel. An important truth is learnt about what happens when Gods word is followed-up with obedience in verse 4. He lifted up his eyes and sees the place of the sacrifice from a distance. He did not need God to speak again for him to ascertain the place. Revelation and divine knowledge and insight follow obedience to the word. Verse 5 shows Abraham leaving his servants behind in the Journey and moving on with Isaac. It seems true worship is a personal thing that often involves the individual going beyond the point where most people can or are willing to go. His faith is unshaken in his confession that he and the lad will go, worship and come back. He understands this is a test and so far, he seems to be doing well. Isaac, the object of the worship is not oblivious of the happenings around him. He is aware a burnt offering is to be performed but does not see any lamb for it. This makes him curious, and even though he was later bound up by his father for the sacrifice, he did not resist ( 7-10 ). Abraham demonstrates his faith once again in God by assuring Isaac of Gods providence ( verse 8). In some way, the whole story is allegorical. Isaac is portrayed as a type of the Christ to come, for as Jesus carried his cross to the place of his crucifixion so Isaac carries the wood for the sacrifice demanded by God(22: 6). Abraham is seen often assuming the status of a god-figure. Twice he is called upon, both by God and Isaac and he responds, here I am'(1). His response with this phrase is reminiscent of the revelation of God(Yahweh) when He speaks to Moses( Ex. 3:14). In Jesus confrontation with the Pharisees, the same title he uses pitches him against them because they taught of him as a blasphemer equating himself with God. This same statement by Abraham is not only indicative of his total availability to God. It in some way makes the parallel of Abraham as a God-figure tenable in the same way that Isaac, the object of the sacrifice is representative of the true lamb in the new testament, Jesus Christ. Isaac carries the wood for the burnt offering ( 6 ), as Christ carries his cross. The place of the sacrifice in the land of Moriah( verse 2) is later seen in the mountain of Jerusalem where Solomon eventually built the temple of the Lord (2 Chron. 3: 1). It plays on the Hebrew word to see (raa) used by Abraham in verses 8 and 14 as to provide. The fact that Abraham was the first to offer a sacrifice there when he eventually offered the ram caught in the ticket shows that he first instituted true worship to God. He was the first to worship God there. It took Abraham three days to find the place of worship. This is probably a half-way point of the entire journey to and fro that would take about seven days. In verse 9, Isaac is bound by Abraham, ready to be slain, yet he does not resist even though his father had already told him that God will provide a lamb for the sacrifice. He is a type of the Christ described in Isaiah 53: 7 who as a lamb brought to the slaughter, opened not his mouth. Abrahams reply to Isaacs question that God will provide himself a lamb for the sacrifice (verse 8) is an act of his faith in God. He had earlier obeyed Gods command to go somewhere to sacrifice his son. Now, he has to assure his son that the object of the sacrifice will be provided. In verse 10, Abraham demonstrates his faith totally by stretching forth his hand with the knife to slay the lad. God sees Abrahams heart that he truly fears him and speaks through his angel from heaven. God is pleased with Abrahams willingness to entrust all his future into his hands. Verse 13 shows Abrahams faith yielding fruits. He had told his son that God will provide a lamb for the burnt offering. Now, the Lord has indeed provided. He sees a ram caught in a bush by its horns and uses it for the sacrifice. Abraham later calls the name of the place Jehovah-jireh, acknowledging that God had indeed seen to or provided. Verses 15- 18 is a re-affirmation of covenant promise by the same angel of the Lord that spoke earlier on. God gives his word through his angel in promise to Abraham that he will bless him and multiply his seed as the stars of the heaven because he has obeyed his voice, trusted him and was willing to sacrifice for covenant. His seed shall posses the gate of their enemies and all the nations of the earth shall be blessed through them. Covenant promise earlier made demands obedience and faithfulness. Now faithfulness in that covenant walk has brought more assurance of more blessings. In verse 19, Abraham returns to his servants and they go and dwell in Beersheba. The underlying theme in the story is the fact that human sacrifice which was a core part of societal life is here seen to be abolished and replaced with animal sacrifice. Infant sacrifice was customary to the nations that dwelt about Abraham and would later become an important practice in Israel (2 Kings 16: 3). Israels realization that the first born belongs to the Lord resulted in their seeking alternative sacrifice that would redeem the first born. Abraham pioneers Israels change from the practice of the other nations through Gods direction to redeem his son by the ram. In verses 21 to 24, the writer notes that Abraham receives news of the children that have been born to his brother Nahor through Milcah. Perhaps the news of multiple bodily fruitfulness is a sign of the promise by the angel of the Lord. The children born to Nahor are Huz, Buz, Kemuel, Chesed, Hazo, Pildash, Jidlaph, and Bethuel. Rebekah, the wife Abrahams servant would later choose for Isaac is the daughter of Bethuel mentioned here. Kemuel is the father of Aram. Nahors concubine Reumah also bore him four children by name Tebah, Gaham, Thahash, and Maachah. This part of the chapter completes the geneology to the second generation of the children of Terah, besides the children born to Abraham by Keturah (25: 1-6). Abraham had fathered Isaac. Now, the younger brother Nahor has twelve children; eight by his wife Milcah, and four by his concubine Reumah. Jacob, Abrahams grandson would later have the same number of children by his wives and concubines. Out of the twelve children born to Nahor, three would become names of places or nations. In Genesis 10: 23, Uz is mentioned as a son of Aram. It is the homeland of Job (Job 1: 1). This is probably northern Edom. The country of Buz is the homeland of one of the friends of Job (32: 2). In Genesis 24:15, Bethuel is seen as a personage. Buz is home to one of Jobs friends ( Job32: 2). Hazu (and Bazu) are mentioned by the 7th century Assyrian king Esarhaddon. In short, Abrahams entire family is blessed even though his youngest sibling Ur, who had fathered Lot had died in Haran. Conclusion Faithfulness is key to keeping covenants. Afterwards, blessings follow. God is faithful. The question is; are we ready to walk in faith with him as Abraham did?
Monday, August 19, 2019
English Literature Biographical Speech Keats, John (1795-1821) English poet, one of the most gifted and appealing of the 19th century and a seminal figure of the romantic movement. Keats was born in London, October 31, 1795,and was the eldest of four children. His father was a livery-stable owner, however he was killed in a riding accident when Keats was only nine and his mother died six years later of tuberculosis. Keats was educated at the Clarke School, in Enfield, and at the age of 15 was apprenticed to a surgeon. Subsequently, from 1814 to 1816, Keats studied medicine in London hospitals; in 1816 he became a licensed apothecary (druggist) but never practiced his profession, deciding instead to be a poet. Early Works Keats had already written a translation of Vergil's Aeneid and some verse; his first published poems (1816) were the sonnets "Oh, Solitude if I with Thee Must Dwell" and "On First Looking into Chapman's Homer." Both poems appeared in the Examiner, a literary periodical edited by the essayist and poet Leigh Hunt, one of the champions of the romantic movement in English literature. Hunt introduced Keats to a circle of literary men, including the poet Percy Bysshe Shelley; the group's influence enabled Keats to see his first volume published, Poems by John Keats (1817). The principal poems in the volume were the sonnet on Chapman's Homer, the sonnet "To One Who Has Been Long in City Pent," "I Stood Tip-Toe upon a Littl...
Sunday, August 18, 2019
A Comparison of Allen Ginsberg and Jack Kerouac Ã Ã Ã Why. Excuse me. Why. Does. Excuse. Why me. I mean. Excuse me. Why. Does. It . Always end up this way. Like this. A performance. It's my best excuse. And. I'm on the wagon. Again. Why. Excuses. Sitting in the state of a daydream. No. Falling. A performance. Why what it comes down to. Poetry. And. My two main men. Allen Ginsberg and Jack Kerouac. Both use their individual voice to perform the buddhistic beat they feel is part of their poetry/ their beatific movement. Even though these two poets influenced each other. And. Their voices are significantly different. Each has a personal style one cannot deny. And. Each boy added his separate beat to the music they created as a generation. A beat generation. Jack's buddhistic jazz/ blues chorus poetry is domesticized/ tainted Christianity-wise. And. Allen's sound becomes zentific without Christianity/ hanging on a cross in the backbeat of his prose poetry. While each may have his own personal style/ both poets use the same techniqu e in sound. And. Rhythm to give their audience something to bugaloo to. Excuse me. What's. That. Poetry. Baby. A performance. So. Please brother. Take a chance. And. Dance. (She says that as she shh shh shivers.) "It's all gotta be non stop ad libbing within each chorus, or the gig is shot" (Kerouac, 1). And he meant every word of it. Jack's system of jazz/blues choruses work on/carry on harmonically as well as through certain words or phrases put together through sound. And also like jazz, his music, seemed to happen spontaneously, like nothing was planned. Ã In the '182nd Chorus', the ideas behind the phrase "The Essence of Existence is Buddhahood" is carried on into the '183rd Chorus' with the phrase "This is the real Buddha" (Allen, 171). It is like a bar of music in a jazz or blues riff. The idea and sound of one chord moves into the next, traveling, never knowing where it is going to end up. Just like the idea and sound of one line in one of Jack's choruses moves into the next, traveling, never knowing where it is going to end up. It sounds and looks spontaneous. Ã And because of this it is meant to be preformed out loud so it can be heard like a jazz or blues riff wailing.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
SWOT is an acronym that stands for strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. The SWOT analysis will help CanGo understand the opportunities that are available and what threats may affect its operations. Before moving forward CanGo needs to assess the position they currently have in the market place. The use of a SWOT analysis technique will be beneficial at this point and will serve as the baseline to elaborate on a strategic plan for the organization.Be Bold has been observing CanGoÃ¢â¬â¢s operations for a couple of months, and have developed the following preliminary SWOT Analysis from these observations:Strength Purchase an automated storage and retrieval system (ASRS) to help improve the warehouse. An automated storage and retrieval system (ASRS) is a great solution for CanGoÃ¢â¬â¢s inventory handling.CanGo has experienced exponential growth in their first two years of operation. CanGo has been recognized as one of the fastest growing small business in the Hudson Val ley. Constant interest in research and improving company. As we can see that CanGo is always looking for something new, they are always trying to beat their competitors, they are constantly trying to improve company, and find another way to be successful and gain profit.Weaknesses CanGo, Inc. has no vision or mission statement.Growth opportunities are imminent and the possibility to go public requires a clear vision and mission statement in order to understand their direction on the marketCanGo is lacking in management by objectives (MBO).The aim of MBO is to increase organizational performance by aligning goal and subordinate objectives throughout the organization.CanGo is missing a strategic management plan.A strategic approach will help CanGo build teamwork by developing commitment and trust; will strengthen the leadership team by aligning their goals with those of the CEO; and will move the organization from the current status quo to an organized environment with clear goal sett ing for the short and long term. to develop and maintain a viable fit between their objectives, resources, and opportunitiesNeed for systems analysis and programmer.The marketing department must focus and apply their expertise and support in the areas of market intelligence and strategic business planning.OpportunitiesDeveloping an in-house database that is incorporates into an automated storage and retrieval system ASRS. An automated storage and retrieval system (ASRS) is a great resolution for CanGoÃ¢â¬â¢s inventory usage.Opportunities also exist in the Asia Pacific region for online sales. Company has to keep an eye on the future opportunities and possible consumers. The region could be their next step ahead to become a continental corporation. Updating the website to incorporate some of the marketing ideas found to be relevant in the recent research analysis project.Threats CanGo needs to expand its operating capacity to continue itsÃ¢â¬â¢ growth. If they stay the same there wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be growth, so in order to become more profitable, beneficial, and successful company they need to increase their productivity.Management must develop a strategic management plan. The purpose of the strategic marketing plan is to fit between the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s objectives and resources and its changing market opportunities so it is beneficial for the company. CanGo could potentially have employee retention problems. It is the responsibility of the CEO to ensure equal opportunity for all employees, adequate compensation packages, fair performance evaluation processes and career development programs for employees.Lack of capital for necessary growth needs. Lack of money and cost of ASRS system. Company needs to have funds to change or improve warehouse. When expanding into a new market CanGo needs to understand and take into account trends that are in the industry and account for them when doing any sort of planning.
The United States government should not fund cloning because cloning would not be an asset for the country right now. It would take a substantial amount funding away in having to accommodate both cloning research and regular scientific research. Looking at it as a whole, cloning is also a matter that a majority of U. S. citizens have not come to terms with. On a global scale, cloning would also create unnecessary competition between the U. S. nd other powerful countries. If the government were to support cloning research, research funds with either have to be split or added onto. With funds being split, progress and and vital advances would be deferred among research that is already going on today. Since our country is well into national debt, adding funds on to enable cloning research would not be wise. America, as one people, are not wholly agreed on the circumstances of cloning research.For some, cloning is crossing an important and moral religious line, let alone a scientific one . For others, cloning is seen as a threat to human and animal rights. If our country is not already equally divided on the issue of cloning, the majority is likely not for cloning. If the U. S. facilitates cloning research, it is likely that other powerful countries will follow lead. There are already many countries who do cloning research, so why make it even more of a global competition?I may also add that there is a wide range of international debt, the U. S. is not the only one experiencing deficit. If any countries should be allowed cloning research, it should be Canada or Sweden; countries that actually have stable economies. Realistically, the U. S. is not yet prepared to fund cloning research. Why can't we just give the glory to a country who could use it? We don't need to reign supreme over every notable advance ever made, or even try to.
Friday, August 16, 2019
Shot-by-shot Analysis of Ã¢â¬Å"Death's MarathonÃ¢â¬ dir. D. W. Griffith. (1913) Shot 1(straight-on angle): Ã¢â¬ ¢White text on black background written, Ã¢â¬ To find his friend before he losses allÃ¢â¬ (2 seconds). Cut to Shot 2 (medium long shot, slightly low angle): Ã¢â¬ ¢Front of house, with stairs slightly to the right of shot and potted plant on either side of stairs. Friend (man) enters from right and walks up stairs (2 seconds). Cut to Shot 3 (medium shot, straight-on angle): Ã¢â¬ ¢Interior of living room where foreground is pretty vacant but background has a study and a desk with a vase with flowers in it.There are three ladies standing: Two nurses on either side of the wife. wife asks maid on left something (1 second) then turns back towards camera (1 second) to ask maid on right also (2 second). Turns back to face camera (2 seconds). Then knock on door (presumably by friend) startles maids and wife and the maid on the left exits shot (3 seconds). Re-enter maid and friend from the left. Friend asks about husband with sharp hand movements (2 seconds). Cut to. Shot 4 (medium long shot, slightly high angle): interior of room with gambling table 3/4 shown on the bottom left corner of shot (foreground) and five men sitting around it gambling and doorman standing in background (2 seconds). Doorman turns to open door (1 second). Cut to Shot 5 (medium close-up, high angle): Ã¢â¬ ¢Gambling table with chips and cards on table, and one player's hands (player to the left of husband) holding cards, places them down and takes all the chips in the centre of table(3 seconds). Cut to Shot 6 (same as shot 4) Ã¢â¬ ¢(setting same as shot 4) and the man to the left of the husband swipes able and brings all his winnings to him and begin to stack up chips (2 seconds) then husband harshly throws two cards on the table, one at a time (2 seconds). Cut to. Shot 7 (medium long shot, straight-on angle) Ã¢â¬ ¢friend on the left of shot, speaking with wife, on the ri ght of shot turned towards each other with their forearms elevated in foreground of shot. Two maids standing in the background (2 seconds). Then friend and maid standing on left exit shot to the left (1 second) and maid on the right exits to the right of shot, leaving wife to stand alone in the centre of shot (2 seconds).Cut to. Shot 8 (long shot, slightly low angle): Ã¢â¬ ¢(setting like shot 2) friend walks down stair and out of house (2 seconds) Shot 9 (same as shot 4) Ã¢â¬ ¢(setting same as shot Ã¢â¬â but without doorman) Player to the right of husband and husband place chips into the centre of table respectively (3 seconds). They both fold cards and player to the right of husband swipes all the chips in the centre of table towards him and laughs (5 seconds). Husband bangs fists on table and gets up and exits door in background while man sitting on the right of shot gets up to congratulate man on who won (5 seconds).Cut to. Shot 10 (long shot, straight-on angle): Ã¢â¬ ¢ sho t of exterior of house with big pillars and stairs on left of screen. Husband walks down two steps, pauses, then continues walking and exits out from the right (5 seconds): Shot 11 (medium long shot, straight-on angle) Ã¢â¬ ¢interior of room (like shot 3). Wife has back to camera and walks towards the background with worried expression (right hand clasped on face) and then turns to the left of shot (8 seconds). Cut to. Shot 12 (long shot, straight-on angle): exterior of house (like shot 10) car drives through and parks in front of stairs on the right of shot with friend in the car. Friend gets off, converses with driver then walks into the house (4 seconds). Cut to. Shot 13 (medium long shot, slightly high angle) Ã¢â¬ ¢interior of house (like shot 9). Friend barges into room, and walks over to gambling table where game is going on. Presumably asks players and spectators where husband is, they reply and friends leaves the room (7 seconds). Cut to. Shot 14 (long shot, straight-on an gle) Friend runs out of house (same setting as shot 10) from left of shot, down stairs and into his car. His drivers drives him away, exit right of shot (4 seconds). Cut to. Shot 15 (medium long shot, straighten angle) Ã¢â¬ ¢shot of husband walking on the street along shops, one which has Ã¢â¬Å"rokersÃ¢â¬ written on window on the left of screen. He walks towards the shop, pauses to stare at it and then walks in (4 seconds). Cut to. Shot 16 (medium shot, straight on) Ã¢â¬ ¢ interior of Ã¢â¬ËRokers' shop. There is a desk with a telephone on it, and chair in the foreground.The background though is more cluttered with a study, stacks of books, a rocking chair and cabinets . Husband enters through door on the right of shot. inspects the space, takes his hat off then unbuttons his jacket, pulls a gun that he's been keeping in his pocket out and sits down on chair and is inspecting the gun (21 seconds). Cut to. Shot 17 (long shot, slightly high angle) Ã¢â¬ ¢shot of exterior of hou se (like shot 2). Friend's car drives in from right of screen and parks in front of steps leading up to house front door. Friend gets off car and walks briskly into the house (5 seconds). Cut to.Shot 18 (medium long shot, slightly high angle): Ã¢â¬ ¢interior of room (like shot 3), wife sitting on chair on the right side of the foreground. Then enters maid with friend. Cut to. Shot 19 (medium shot, straight on) Ã¢â¬ ¢interior of room (like shot 16). Husband sitting on chair, leaning against table with telephone near his elbow. Husband looks at gun, chuckles then looks at telephone and picks it up (8 seconds). cut to. Shot 20 (medium shot, straight-on) Ã¢â¬ ¢interior of room (like shot 3), friend and wife talking then phone rings and friend picks it up (5 seconds). cut to. Shot 21 (medium shot, straight-on) Interior of room (like shot 16), husband sitting on seat leaned against table speaking on telephone (4 seconds). Cut to. Shot 22 (medium shot, straight-on) Ã¢â¬ ¢interior of ro om (like shot 3) friend laughs on phone then wife gets up looking relieved and happy (2 seconds). Cut to. Shot 23 (medium shot, straight on) Ã¢â¬ ¢husband in same pose as in shot 21 continues to speak on the phone looking at his gun which is now pointed towards the ceiling (5 seconds). Cut to Shot 24 (title) Ã¢â¬ ¢White text on black background that reads, Ã¢â¬Å"Determined upon suicideÃ¢â¬ (3 seconds) Shot 25 (medium shot, straight-on) friend and wife standing in the middle of interior of room (like shot 3), friend speaking on the phone and wife standing looking over shoulder (2 seconds). Cut to. Shot 26 (medium shot, straight-on) Ã¢â¬ ¢interior of room (like shot 16) with husband in same position as shot 21, continues to laugh and talk; still pointing gun to ceiling (2 seconds). Cut to. Shot 27 (medium shot, straight-on) Ã¢â¬ ¢friend and wife in same position as shot 25, friend getting angry, hands wife the telephone then exits to the left of shot. Wife speak on the phone w ith softer, happier expression (11 seconds).Cut to Shot 28 (Long shot, straight-on) Ã¢â¬ ¢friend exits house, gets into car, then is briskly giving instructions to his driver pointing forward. The car drives off and exits to the right of the shot leaving a dust trail behind (3 seconds). Cut to. Shot 29 (Medium shot, straight on) Ã¢â¬ ¢Husband sitting in same position as shot 21 and continues to speak on the phone and absentmindedly play with his gun (5 seconds). Cut to. Shot 30 (medium shot, straight-on) Ã¢â¬ ¢interior of room (like shot 3), wife standing in the centre and continues to speak on the phone and occasionally smiling (5 seconds).Cut to. Shot 31 (long shot, straight on) Ã¢â¬ ¢shows friend's car turning onto main road from left of shot and driving towards audience (3 seconds). Cut to. Shot 32 (medium shot, straight-on) Ã¢â¬ ¢interior of house (like shot 3) with wife in same position as shot 30. Wife now looks worried and is accentuating the things she is saying over t he phone (6 seconds). Cut to Shot 33 (medium shot, straight-on) Ã¢â¬ ¢setting and husband in same position as shot 21. Husband laughs once and looks at his gun (4 seconds). Cut to Shot 34 (medium shot, straight-on) wife in interior of room (like shot 30) and continues to look worried in and disagree into the phone, but after starts smiling and calming down slightly (13 seconds). Cut to. Shot 35 (medium shot, straight on) Ã¢â¬ ¢same as shot 29 (2 seconds). Cut to Shot 36 (medium shot, straight-on) Ã¢â¬ ¢wife in interior of room (like shot 3) and continues to speak on the phone worriedly. She then puts the phone down and moves off screen from the right (5 seconds). Cut to. Shot 37 (medium shot, straight on) Ã¢â¬ ¢interior of room like shot 21, but the man stops speaking and puts the phone down (2 seconds). Cut to.Shot 38 (medium long shot, straight on) Ã¢â¬ ¢interior like shot 3, wife frantically walking around room then moves off screen from the right (4 seconds). Cut to Shot 39 (medium long shot, straight-on) Ã¢â¬ ¢interior of room which as a curtain on the right, a lot of empty space in the centre, a chair and a cabinet on the foreground to the right and a cabinet in the background on the left. The wife enters through the curtains on the left puts hand up and looks exhausted (3 seconds). Cut to. Shot 40 (medium shot, straight-on) Ã¢â¬ ¢husband sitting on a chair in the same interior of room as shot 16.He looks straight at the camera and thinks then proceeds to write something down on (8 seconds). Cut to. Shot 41 (long shot, straight on) Ã¢â¬ ¢car driving on windy road at fast speed (3 seconds). Cut to Shot 42 (medium shot, straight on) Ã¢â¬ ¢husband sitting in same interior of room as shot 16 holding telephone in one hand and the gun in the other (gun pointing towards viewer). His eyes get droopy and he looks from the gun straight to the camera then smiles slightly (10 seconds). Cut to. Shot 43 (medium shot, straight-on) Ã¢â¬ ¢same interior of room as shot 39, wife looks panicked, maid enters frame rom right side carrying baby and they all exit through the curtain on the left of the frame (3 seconds). Cut to Shot 44 (medium shot, straight-on) Ã¢â¬ ¢wife and maid holding baby enters interior of room (like shot 3) from right. Wife picks up phone looking worried still and maid and baby stand to her left looking concerned (3 seconds). Cut to Shot 45 (medium shot, slightly high angle) Ã¢â¬ ¢interior of room (like shot 16) husband is still sitting looking at his gun, then something on the telephone catches his attention and he puts it to his ear (3 seconds). ut to. Shot 50 (medium shot, straight on) Ã¢â¬ ¢same setting and positioning as shot 44. Wife puts phone to baby's ear and tries to get him/her to speak (5 seconds). Cut to. Shot 51(medium shot, straight on) Ã¢â¬ ¢same setting and positioning as shot 45, husbands looks more happy to hear the voice on the phone (3 seconds). Cut to Shot 52 (medium shot, straight-on) Ã¢â¬ ¢sam e as shot 50 (2 seconds). Cut to. Shot 53 (medium shot, straight on) Ã¢â¬ ¢same setting and position as shot 51, husband looks relieved but sad. (3 seconds). Cut to. Shot 54 (medium shot, straight on) same setting and shot as 44 wife tells maid and baby to leave, they exit to the left of the shot then wife continues to speak on the phone (3 seconds). Cut to Shot 56 (long shot, straight on) Ã¢â¬ ¢shot of streets and car driving fast down in (2 seconds). Cut to. Shot 57 (medium shot, straight-on) Ã¢â¬ ¢same setting as shot 44. Wife standing in the centre of shot continues to speak on the phone (2 seconds). Cut to. Shot 60 (medium shot, straight on) Ã¢â¬ ¢same setting as shot 45, husband puts phone down and slowly brings gun up to temple (6 seconds). Cut to. Shot 61 (medium shot, straight on) Wife in same setting and position as shot 57. She continues to listen attentively to the phone, then has two shocks when she hears something on the phone. (12 seconds). Cut to. Shot 62 (medium shot, straight-on) Ã¢â¬ ¢same setting and position as shot 60, husband takes fuming gun out of mouth slowly (2 seconds). Cut to . Shot 63 (medium shot, straight on) Ã¢â¬ ¢same setting and positioning as shot 52. Wife now frantically speaking into phone (9 seconds). Cut to. Shot 64 (long shot, straight on) Ã¢â¬ ¢Friend's car drives around the corner and parks in front of shop. He gets off quickly (3 seconds).Cut to. Shot 65 (medium long shot, straight on) Ã¢â¬ ¢friend runs quickly through door at the background then exits through door on the left of screen (5 seconds). Cut to. Shot 66 (medium long shot) Ã¢â¬ ¢friend walks into interior of room (like shot 16) then slowly picks up friend by the head and then places him back down (15 seconds). Cut to. Shot 67 (medium shot, straight-on) Ã¢â¬ ¢wife standing in the same interior as shot 63 speechless (4 seconds). Cut to. Shot 68 (medium shot, straight on) Ã¢â¬ ¢ same interior of room as shot 66 friend stares at dead husband and the n picks up telephone. Cut to.Shot 69 (medium shot, straight on) Ã¢â¬ ¢Wife still speaking on the phone in interior of room like shot 63 (4 seconds). Cut to. Shot 70 (medium shot, straight on) Ã¢â¬ ¢friend in same position as shot 68 speaking on the telephone (2 seconds). Cut to. Shot 71 (medium shot, straight on) Ã¢â¬ ¢same as shot 69 (2 seconds). Cut to. Shot 72 (medium shot straight on) Ã¢â¬ ¢same as shot 70 (2 seconds). Cut to. Shot 73 (medium Shot, Straight on) Ã¢â¬ ¢same setting and position as shot 69, then wife puts telephone down and looks shocked and sad and exits to the right of the shot (13 seconds). Cut to. Shot 74 (long shot, straight on) same interior as shot 39, wife enters from right of shot, can see her profile, then she drops to the floor and her head is partially hidden between the cabinets in the background and foreground (12 seconds). Cut to. Shot 75 (title) Ã¢â¬ ¢white writing on black background written, Ã¢â¬Å"The wife set free from her unfortunate alli anceÃ¢â¬ (6 seconds). Cut to. Shot 76 (medium long shot, slightly high angle) Ã¢â¬ ¢interior of room, with lots of furniture, wife sitting on chair looking sad, friend enters from left of shot and give a huge bouquet of flower to wife, wife looks slightly happy and hopefully (32 seconds) Written Account of Death's MarathonÃ¢â¬ dir. D. W. Griffith. (1913) D. W. Griffith's Ã¢â¬Å"Death's MarathonÃ¢â¬ contain certain prominent stylist cinematic features which are evident through the repetitive use of mise-en-scene, specifically the setting and staging of each shot, editing, framing and the level and angle of each shot. Firstly, the mise-en-scene used in this extract of Ã¢â¬Å"Death's MarathonÃ¢â¬ are specific to the setting, props and movement of characters. In this clip, the settings evident mainly include the interior of rooms in houses or the landscape of the geographical location as evident with the long shots of the roads and town.These settings are used primarily to show that the story is focused around family and relationship issues as the problems that arise in the story include conflict between marital and business relations. Also, the each setting of the interior of rooms where shot with a short focal length (wide angle) which exaggerated the depth making the distance between the background and foreground seem greater. Apart from the setting, the props used help the viewers distinguish between each interior of the rooms. Also, in each setting there is a different alignment of chairs, desks etc. hich makes certain different props stand out; this allows for objects such as the telephone to become a motif prop. In regards to mise-en-scene, the movement of the character, or lack thereof, is another formal property which is largely evident in this extract because most of the movement is restricted to the small, central area of each shot creating an emphasis on the character's actions. Apart from being restrictive, the character's movement is als o The angle and distance of framing of the shot in this extract are all very imilar in the sense that most of the shots are either a straight on angle or has a slight hight angle. And the Apart from the miss-en-scene aspect of the extract, the specific editing used, combined with the shot length was another stylistic pattern that was evident. The extract did not have any use of transitions. It only cut from one shot to the next throughout. However, Griffith did use shot-reverse-shot technique when the characters were having a discussion over the telephone specifically when the wife was speaking with her husband leading up to his death.The build up to the climax (death of husband) used the shot-reverse-shot technique which includes using shots with shorter lengths (2 seconds each) to create a rhythmic beat, much like that of a heart beat. This slow shot length however is also balanced with longer shots (which lasted up to 12 seconds), more specifically evident after the death of the husband which mimicked the speechlessness of the wife. Ã¢â¬ ¢ angle Ã¢â¬â straight on angle, medium + long shot (quite simple)