Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Introduction There has always been a startling contrast between the transportation systems of developed and developing countries with the former usually having well planned, modernized and efficient methods of transportation while the latter is usually considered mired in bureaucratic entanglements, inefficiency and a lack of sufficient urban planning that transport systems are seemingly added on as an afterthought to a cityÃ¢â¬â¢s creation. Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Vancouver and Riyadh: An Examination specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Such contrasting natures can be seen in the case of Riyadh and Vancouver wherein both cities exemplify the differences in urban planning and transportation development between developed and developing countries and as such make an interesting case to observe whether any similarities in transport systems exist despite the inherent differences between the two. Air Transport One of the first major similarities between Vancouver and Riyadh is that both cities have major airports situated Ã¢â¬Å"relativelyÃ¢â¬ close by with Vancouver International Airport located 12 km from the downtown district of the city while RiyadhÃ¢â¬â¢s King Khalid International Airport is located 35 km away. On average the King Khalid International Airport handles 15 million passengers a year while Vancouver International Airport handles 17 million a year, this shows a relatively close similarity in the sheer amount of people that pass through both cities on a yearly basis and is a good starting point in order to determine whether other similarities between these two diverse locations. Before proceeding any further, it is necessary to bring up the fact that due to VancouverÃ¢â¬â¢s proximity to large bodies of water the city does have an alternate method of air transport in the form of planes that can land and take off from the water (Boyle, Haggerty, 2011). Though such planes are not as well used now as they were before, they still constitute one aspect of VancouverÃ¢â¬â¢s transportation system and truly sets it apart from Riyadh due to the fact that such planes are not used at all within this city due to its proximity to one of the largest deserts on the planet. Rail Transport Systems The main difference between the two cities in terms of transportation capacity is the fact that Vancouver has several light rail transport systems meant to offset traffic and make it easier for people to move from one part of the city to another. Advertising Looking for essay on geography? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These transport systems are composed of the Sky train, the West Coast Commuter Express, the Expo line, the Millennium line and the Canada line, all of which service millions of commuters a day. It must also be noted that the Sky train transport system actually goes all the way to Vancouver I nternational Airport which makes it all the more easier to travel for travelers to reach the city at a quick pace (Boyle, Haggerty, 2011). In comparison, Riyadh is relatively lacking in terms of a sufficiently capable mass light rail transport system within its transportation system with only a traditional mass rail line operated by the Saudi Railway Authority being the only comparatively close system that is even Ã¢â¬Å"similarÃ¢â¬ to the rail transport systems Vancouver has at the present. It must be noted though that there are currently plans to build the Riyadh Light Transit Railway (LTR) in order to service various parts of the city, unfortunately this particular plan has suffered considerable setbacks in the form of bureaucratic entanglements to the extent that despite being announced two to three years ago the basic foundations for the light rail transport system have yet to even be established (Gcc Meet To Discuss Railways Network, 2007). Arteries of Transportation It is quite interesting to note that despite the fact that Vancouver has a more efficient system of public transportation and urban planning it lags behind Riyadh in terms of the sheer amount of highways that service the city. At the present, Riyadh is serviced by the Eastern Ring road (which connect the southern and northern parts of the city), the Northern Ring Road (this connects the eastern and western halves of the city), while the King Fahd road goes entirely through the center of the city and connects its north and south end. It must also be noted that the Makkah road which is situated parallel to the Eastern Ring Road connects various aspects of the cityÃ¢â¬â¢s financial and diplomatic district with other sections within the eastern half of the city. Vancouver on the other hand merely has Highway 1 as its primary highway transport artery and is situated near the north-eastern half of the city. Explaining the Difference The main reason why there is such a strange disparity b etween the cases of Riyadh and Vancouver in terms of the number of highways that service the city is due to divergence in focus between the two. In the case of Vancouver, local city councils and urban planners in the 1960s-1970s focused on the development of long term plans which espoused mass transportation systems and easy methods of commuting rather than place an emphasis on the use of cars as a the primary method of transportation within the city. Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Vancouver and Riyadh: An Examination specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This particular train of thought continued to carry over in successive councils which was further influenced by the Ã¢â¬Å"green movementÃ¢â¬ within various western countries which led towards the promotion of clean transportation systems and less reliance on gas guzzling vehicles. As a result, despite VancouverÃ¢â¬â¢s increasing population rates the city ha s actually experienced a 7% decline in car usage ever since the early half of the 1990s. This particular emphasis on mass transportation and Ã¢â¬Å"green livingÃ¢â¬ has also manifested itself in the form of stricter rules and regulations on the use of cars which is meant to encourage commuting rather than driving. On the other end of the spectrum, Saudi Arabia due its status as an oil exporting country has relatively low local fuel costs as compared to that of other countries (Saudi Arabia, 1999). With no limits on personal car ownership (so long as you can afford it) this has encouraged the use of cars as the primary method of transportation within the city of Riyadh. Unfortunately, this has brought with it a host of various problems such as increasing numbers of traffic jams, delays in commuting, and the proliferation of lung related diseases as a result of the sheer amount of carbon dioxide emissions. It must also be noted that there is a distinct lack of environmental owner ship within the case of Riyadh and as such it is unlikely that any method of urban transportation and development which focuses on Ã¢â¬Å"green livingÃ¢â¬ will be developed any time soon. Buses and Taxis Aside from owning your own car, taxis and buses are the primary method of transportation within Riyadh with most people opting to use a taxi whenever possible due to the relatively poor conditions of the public bus system and the fact that several of the buses are at times not air conditioned at all (a relatively troublesome factor given that that Riyadh is for all intents and purposes located within the center of a desert). Vancouver on the other hand has developed an entirely different set of policies for its internal transportation system with relatively few taxis and Translink being the provider of bus transport related services within the center of the city (Jump in, 2010). Before proceeding it must also be noted that due to its emphasis on clean living, the city has actua lly encouraged the use of various methods of manually powered methods of transportation (i.e. biking or walking) as a means of reducing environmental pollution and encouraging people to live healthier lifestyles. This has been generally well accepted by member of the local community and continues to be a favored method of transportation within the city. Advertising Looking for essay on geography? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It must be noted though that the one reason why such a policy system would not work in the case of Riyadh is due to the fact that the extreme temperatures of the city (which can reach 40 degrees Celsius or more) dissuades alternative methods of transportation given the fact that the temperatures alone are not conducive towards manually powered transportation schemes. Water transport systems Proximity to a large body of fresh water, this is the main difference between the two cities and is defining factor of this section which explores the water transportation mechanisms within Vancouver which are all but absent in the case of Riyadh. Presently, the city is serviced by two ferry terminals located at Horseshoe Bay (which is to the west of Vancouver) while the other is located further south in the Tsawwassen area. On average these ferries transport people and various types of cargo from area of Vancouver at a relatively affordable rate. Though slow, this classic method of transportati on does go through the Ã¢â¬Å"scenicÃ¢â¬ route which showcases the beauty of the local area. Considering the fact that Riyadh has no water transport methods that can transport goods in between areas of the city, this in effect is one of the main divergences between the two. Conclusion Based on the various facts presented, it can be seen that while there are Ã¢â¬Å"slightÃ¢â¬ similarities in the transportation systems utilized between Vancouver and Riyadh, there are more inherent differences between the two. Various reasons behind this divergence stem from either the different local environment (where Vancouver is definitely colder than Riyadh and has a different regional ecosystem all to together) to variances in the way in which local government units view the necessity of mass transportation systems and the implementation of Ã¢â¬Å"green technologiesÃ¢â¬ as a means of combating pollution. It must also be noted that since Saudi Arabia is an oil rich nation with gas price s being relatively low, this enables people who live within Riyadh to affordably utilize their cars at all hours of the day which is in direct contrast to the relatively high price of gas within Vancouver. On the other hand, based on the data that has been shown it can be seen that the transportation systems inherent within a city are direct reflects of the quality of life within the area with people living in Vancouver having a far cleaner and healthier way of living due to the lack of pollutants in the air as compared to their counterparts within Riyadh. Reference List Boyle, P., Haggerty, K. D. (2011). Civil Cities and Urban Governance: Regulating Disorder for the Vancouver Winter Olympics. Urban Studies (Sage Publications, Ltd.), 48(15), 3185-3201. Gcc Meet To Discuss Railways Network. (2007). Arabia 2000. Jump in. (2010). Weekly Reader News Ã¢â¬â Senior, 88(16), 4. Saudi Arabia. (1999). MEED: Middle East Economic Digest, 43(11), 30. This essay on Vancouver and Riyadh: An Examination was written and submitted by user Santiago N. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Saturday, November 23, 2019
Your Major Isnt All thatMajor Yippee! YouÃ¢â¬â¢re going to COLLEGE! YouÃ¢â¬â¢re probably getting hours and hours of sleep because you donÃ¢â¬â¢t spend any time at all mulling over all the new, unknown, big, scary things that come bundled up in that word Ã¢â¬Ëcollege.Ã¢â¬â¢ No, you havenÃ¢â¬â¢t started thinking about your future or your career or what all that means for your next four years. You havenÃ¢â¬â¢t started thinking about leaving home (if you are), either, or leaving your friends. YouÃ¢â¬â¢re dandy. YouÃ¢â¬â¢re just great. You are so excited. Genuinely amped. Ready to go. You feel like you just want to give everyone high fives. Except, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s not true at all. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s actually laughable. I know, you know, we all know that you are also (and I am definitely understating this): scared out of your wits. YouÃ¢â¬â¢ve got the heebie-jeebies- those annoying willies. Your stomach is essentially a butterfly conservatory. You spend a lot of your free time exclaiming things like: Ã¢â¬Å"WHAT IS GOING ON?Ã¢â¬ OrÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬Å"HOW AM I SUPPOSED TO KNOW WHAT I WANT TO DO WHEN I GROW UP?Ã¢â¬ But mostlyÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬Å"AHHHHHH.Ã¢â¬ Yep. Guess what? YouÃ¢â¬â¢re normal. This is normal. College is a huge adjustment. Somehow, though, all of us college-goers come out alive, smiling, and never wanting to leave. So be soothed. This will be the best time of your life. Now, I know my words of wisdom wonÃ¢â¬â¢t actually be heeded at the moment, so I wonÃ¢â¬â¢t keep spouting nostalgic, reflective, awesome statements about college. What I will do is give you some tips on how to gain appropriate perspective on your undergraduate education. WeÃ¢â¬â¢re going to talk about (dun dun dunnnnÃ¢â¬ ¦): YOUR MAJOR. Hear me when I say: YOU WANT TO READ THIS. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s okay to change it. Multiple times. Some of you know exactly what you want to study, maybe what career path you want to go down. YouÃ¢â¬â¢re pretty sure youÃ¢â¬â¢ve got it all figured out. If youÃ¢â¬â¢re nodding your head right now, this piece of wisdom is for you: you may be surprised. Some of you will keep on that initial path. YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll start taking classes in your particular major, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll enjoy it, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll sit in the front row, hang out with your professors in office hours, and youÃ¢â¬â¢ll just keep on keepinÃ¢â¬â¢ on until you graduate. Some of you, though, will find that you donÃ¢â¬â¢t actually like what you thought you would. YouÃ¢â¬â¢re bored, youÃ¢â¬â¢re confused, youÃ¢â¬â¢re sleeping (and snoring) in class, and you just arenÃ¢â¬â¢t that into it. For you guys, and for those who start off college undeclared, I implore you to feel comfortable and at ease trying new things until something fits. You do it when you shop, you can do it when you study. You wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t buy an extremely expensive outfit without trying it on first, would you? So why buy an education (which is, you know, sort of pricey) without trying some stuff out first? Think about it. Some of you might be worried about what Ã¢â¬Å"other peopleÃ¢â¬ will think. I want to tell you that no one will judge you if you change it up a bit. They will actually praise you for caring about the education you are getting (whoÃ¢â¬â¢s the cool kid on campus now?). As long as you monitor your units, requirements, etc. throughout your college career, you should have no problem. Have no fear, you are not alone! Counselors can help you with this process, too! It doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t define your career. Oh my goodness, what did she just say? THAT IS BLASPHEMOUS! I have a lot of friends who want to be doctors. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢ve taken their pre-requisites for medical school, sure, but do you know how many of them are actually majoring in things like physiological sciences, biology, biochemistry, neuroscience, etc.? Practically none. Many have picked majors like history and English. The same goes for some of my friends who chose to go to law school. Your major matters because hopefully it reflects your interests. Hopefully, you are studying something you really want to be studying. That may or may not lead to a career in that field. You may even (like my aspiring-doctor-buds) get the chance to study two subjects (Wow!). I changed my major three times (almost fourÃ¢â¬ ¦no shame), am currently studying psychology, and donÃ¢â¬â¢t intend to be a psychologist. Nuts, right? Your options are endless. The main point isÃ¢â¬ ¦ DonÃ¢â¬â¢t let yourself be scared by the constricting appearance of a word like Ã¢â¬Ëmajor.Ã¢â¬â¢ ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not going to constrict you unless you want it to and you let it. With enough determination you can always pull strings here and there and maneuver stealthily through your undergraduate experience to create whatever experience you want. Honestly. Just look at college as a time to figure out what really makes you tick- what you really want to spend time learning about. Maybe you will be inspired to continue that study later on in life, and maybe you wonÃ¢â¬â¢t. ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s nothing wrong with either of these situations. So take the leap, step into the unknown, jump into the ocean, let your spirit fly! (That got excessive fairly quicklyÃ¢â¬ ¦my bad.) Point is: try new things, explore a little bit. YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll be better than fine. I promise. Okay, okayÃ¢â¬ ¦ I pinky promise.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Ethics - Term Paper Example Leaders, who possess honesty and integrity, are better equipped to inculcate a sense of security within the workforce during the fast transforming dynamics of the current business processes. People are frequently less honest in putting their best in their work environment, especially when they are not motivated for the work that they get paid for. I really feel that whatever the work environment, one should do oneÃ¢â¬â¢s job with full sincerity and try to give oneÃ¢â¬â¢s best under all circumstances. As in the present case, while my current job is not to my liking, I still conscientiously try to put my best in my job. Another very important fact is that leaders and managers within the organizations should also be honest in their feedback to the employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ performance. This is one of the most critical aspects of improving and improvising the work performance of the sub-ordinates and workforce in general. Our office environment hugely lacks motivated work because the manager is often inclined to give wrong reports to the seniors. The manager often does not give correct feedbacks. Recently one my colleague was fired for causing a grave error. It was unexpected because he was never told about his mistakes. When he was suddenly served with the notice, we all realized that manager was not only dishonest but had also betrayed the trust of his subordinates. He had just compiled the workerÃ¢â¬â¢s mistakes which he had never bothered to discuss with him! In my role as leader or manager, I would ensure that workers are provided with regular feedback so that they can improve their work. This not only would create a more motivating environment but also develop trust between the management and workforce. Honest dialogues also promote inter-personal relationship. When the leaders are honest in their intention to address the problems of the workers, they are better able to manage their performance. Another vital issue is ensuring that workers are given correct pic ture of the organizational performance so that they are able to garner workersÃ¢â¬â¢ trust. Managers often misread situations and wishfully hope that optimist attitude would improve situations and productivity. When, over a long time, situations do not improve, he not loses his credibility but also the trust of his people. I will be honest with my workers and try to present correct picture of organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s future. I think, it would encourage employees to apply new vision and wider perspectives on issues so that corrective measures could be applied for improving the overall performance. Accountability of actions is another important work principle that improves quality of work and promotes teamwork. In fact, one of the members of my team had developed the habit of calling sick on Friday to Monday on a regular basis. His long absence had huge adverse impact on the productivity and weekly targets. Despite repeated complaint, manager had delayed taking action against the errin g member till after huge loss was discovered by the senior management. The lack of accountability on the parts of colleague as well as that of my supervisor/ manager was highly detrimental to organization performance. It also reflected badly on the rest of the team as we were not able to achieve the defined target. I believe that accountability of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s action is a vital ingredient of oneÃ¢â¬â¢
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Gobachevs New Foreign Policy and its Consequences - Essay Example GorbachevÃ¢â¬â¢s foreign policy approach was a direct result of domestic concerns. Gorbachev viewed economic and political restructuring as not simply the basis of domestic revitalization, it was essential to sustain the Soviet UnionÃ¢â¬â¢s position as an international power. Gorbachev described the connection between his domestic and foreign policy programs. Ã¢â¬Å"The success of efforts at internal reform will determine whether or not the Soviet Union will enter the twenty-first century in a manner worthy of a great power.Ã¢â¬ 1 New Soviet government leaders, led by Gorbachev, introduced radical changes to the Soviet system. He initiated perestroika, a series of economic reforms meant to eliminate ineffective administrative structures without fundamentally altering the state-run economy. Politically, Gorbachev introduced glasnost so as to decrease the control of the state and Communist Party interests, the obstacles to economic reform. Political reform was successful but also initiated opposition that ultimately led to GorbachevÃ¢â¬â¢s political demise. New foreign policy thinking was created and implemented to support the pressing needs for economic reform and internal political reforms. These reforms reunited Germany and earned Gorbachev a good deal of popularity throughout the world, more so than in Russia. It also earned him the Nobel Peace prize and an honored position in history. Characteristic of Soviet ideologies from the past, the primary attention of its new leadership was on the domestic issues.
Sunday, November 17, 2019
The Securities and Exchange Commission - Essay Example The International Monetary Fund approximated Ã¢â¬Å"more than $1 trillion on toxic assets and from bad loansÃ¢â¬ were lost by big western banks Ã¢â¬Å"from January 2007 to September 2009Ã¢â¬ (Reuters 1). The individual losses and exposures were undisclosed by these institutions in order Ã¢â¬Å"to prevent Ã¢â¬ËrunsÃ¢â¬â¢ on their banks or trading against their positions by their competitors in the marketsÃ¢â¬ which can further escalate their losses (Dobbs & Minyard 1). Hence, what the banks and other companies/institutions did was to refrain from lending money Ã¢â¬Å"among themselves or to other businessesÃ¢â¬ since they were uncertain as to their trading partnersÃ¢â¬â¢ financial health and considered that Ã¢â¬Å"the risk of loss was too high,Ã¢â¬ opting to preserve their cash to compensate for any probable future losses (Dobbs & Minyard 1). The Ã¢â¬Å"sources of liquidityÃ¢â¬ was said to have desiccated for a number of companies with capital markets failing to perform properly (Dobbs & Minyard 1). This resulted to breakdown and bankruptcies of influential companies or Ã¢â¬Å"land-rich/cash-poor situationÃ¢â¬ for energy companies (Dobbs & Minyard 1). The global economy then was said to be in recession as Ã¢â¬Å"the financial markets seizedÃ¢â¬ (Dobbs & Minyard 1). ... SEC 1). The federal statutes and rules require companies to have Ã¢â¬Å"full disclosure and transparencyÃ¢â¬ whenever it Ã¢â¬Å"sells stocks or bonds to the publicÃ¢â¬ (Johnson 993), or to supply Ã¢â¬Å"a detailed public disclosure documentÃ¢â¬ to both Ã¢â¬Å"investors and regulatorsÃ¢â¬ (Securities Act of 1933 Ã §Ã § 5, 10, 15 U.S.C. Ã §Ã § 77e, 77j (2006); 17 C.F.R. pt. 230 (2011), whenever private businesses make public offerings (Johnson 993). The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) reviews Ã¢â¬Å"these disclosure documents,Ã¢â¬ which in the case of Groupon, the SEC they required the latter to revise its disclosures in order to improve their accuracy (U.S. SEC, Letter from Larry Spirgel 1-14). This requirement however is not applicable to private placements wherein Ã¢â¬Å"a company sells an investment outside of the normal public securities marketsÃ¢â¬ (Securities Act of 1933 Ã § 4(2), 15 U.S.C. Ã § 77d(2); 17 C.F.R. Ã § 230.506 (2011)), which often times evade examination by federal and state regulatory bodies (Johnson 151). Because these placements are private, they are concealed (Johnson 993) and the issuers tend to divulge Ã¢â¬Å"far less information to investorsÃ¢â¬ than that required for public offerings (SEC v. Ralston Purina Co., 346 U.S. 119, 125-26 (1953) and SEC rule 506 under 17 C.F.R. Ã § 230.506). Issuers also divulge this information Ã¢â¬Å"only to qualified investorsÃ¢â¬ (17 C.F.R. Ã § 230.506 and 17 C.F.R. Ã § 230.501(a) (2011)). Ã¢â¬Å"Regulators and even academics have little or no access to the private placement disclosuresÃ¢â¬ (Johnson 993). Private placements are also said not to be liquid, Ã¢â¬Å"difficult to price,Ã¢â¬ and bear significant risks (Johnson
Friday, November 15, 2019
Theories of domestic violence There are many different theories as to the causes of domestic violence (abuse). These include psychological theories that consider personality traits and mental characteristics of the offender, as well as social theories which consider external factors in the offenders environment, such as stress, social learning and drug and alcohol abuse. Psychological theories focus on personality traits and mental characteristics of the offender. According to this theoretical approach, characteristics associated with individuals who abuse their partners include low self-esteem, isolation from social support, a manipulative nature, and a desire for power and control (Suman Kakar 1998). These individuals are likely to be unwilling to take responsibility for their own actions, have extreme feelings of jealousy and possessiveness, be overly dependent on the victim, and/or have certain mental or psychological disorders. An important aspect in the psychological theory is power and control. In some relationships, violence arises out of a perceived need for power and control. This is where the abuser may use violence as a strategy to gain or maintain power and control over the victim. Abusers may feel the need to control their partner because of difficulties in regulating anger and other strong emotions, or when they feel inferior to the other partner in education and socioeconomic background. For instance, in our society today, women have moved away from being just a housewife and taken up the role as a career woman. No longer are women staying home and tending to the house while men go out and work. In fact, a lot of women have taken over jobs that were previously held my men (women politicians). This has brought about a power struggle in the family which often leads to domestic disputes and abuse: Some men with very traditional beliefs still think they have the right to control women, and that women are not equal to men, while women on the other hand, are vying for power and control. Stress may be increased when a person is living in a family situation, with increased pressures. Social stresses, due to inadequate finances or other such problems in a family may further increase tensions. Violence is not always caused by stress, but may be one way that some (but not all) people respond to stress. Families and couples in poverty may be more likely to experience domestic violence, due to increased stress and conflicts about finances and other aspects. Some speculate that poverty may hinder a mans ability to live up to his idea of successful manhood, thus he fears losing honor and respect. As a result of him not being able to economically support his wife, and maintain control, he may turn to violence as ways to express masculinity. Social learning theory suggests that people learn from observing and modeling after others behaviour. With positive reinforcement, the behavior continues. If one observes violent behavior, one is more likely to imitate it. If there are no negative consequences (e.g. victim accepts the violence, with submission), then the behaviour will likely continue. Oftentimes, violence is transmitted from generation to generation in a cyclical manner. According to Faith St Catherine of the Womens Resource and Outreach centre in Jamaica, there is a culture of abuse, especially among the inner city poor Studies have found that nearly one half of abusive men grew up in homes where their father or step father was an abuser. An environment where violence is either taught, by example, or accepted as normal will imprint upon a childs psyche. For instance, a young boy may see his father come home from work drunk and angry, screaming at his mother. He watches his mother attempt to please and placate his f athers drunken behaviour. The young boy is being taught that violence gets results. He is developing his own ideas about what makes a man. http://books.google.com/books?hl=enlr=id=BPT0HelrVcMCoi=fndpg=PA201dq=Social+theories+of+Domestic+Violenceots=9iVvl8_Tprsig=C9P8UBogyad2RePEnpeTk5JYs7Y#v=onepageq=f=false Drug and/or alcohol abuse may be a precursor to domestic violence. Substance abuse leads to out-of-control behaviour. A drunk or high person will be less likely to control his or her violent impulses. However some have argued that abusers use drug and alcohol as an excuse for their action. Yet, alcohol is an important risk factor for partner abuse. According to University of the West Indies professor and gender expert in Trinidad, Rhoda Reddock: in Trinidad, many of the most gruesome murders and sexual violence are linked to mental disease brought about by drug and alcohol addiction, respectively. Since alcohol decreases control and raises the potential for acting on impulse, it is not surprising that some feel it can be a catalyst for abuse. Often a person is able to maintain control of violent emotions when he is sober, but after a few drinks, he becomes abusive. The alcohol has dulled his wits and diminished his ability to control his temper. In the Caribbean or more specifically in Barbados, domestic violence is becoming more and more apparent in the society. Domestic violence is seldom reported in the island, hence why the true incidence of domestic violence is unknown. In November of 2005, according to The World Health Organization (WHO) one woman in every three (3) women are reported to be sexually abused during childhood or adolescence. The study revealed that the most common forms of violence is meted out by loved ones. As mentioned earlier, domestic violence is also known to be closely linked with drug and alcohol abuse. According to Tessa Chaderton-Shaw , manager, of the National Council of Substance Abuse (NCSA), There are many cross-cutting issues with substance abuse and domestic violence She also stated that, It can lead to isolation, shame, guilt, initial denial, loss of support, low self-esteem and a potential for criminal involvement. People then became more aware of Domestic Violence in the country, and th e awareness has constantly been growing. Even the Barbados Police Force has taken domestic violence under more serious consideration and had devised a strategic plan to address domestic violence and reduce its occurrence, according to Sergeant David Wiltshire. Wiltshire said that officers were sent to the United States and England for training to respond to domestic violence issues. References Theories http://social.jrank.org/pages/210/Domestic-Violence-Causes-Domestic-Violence.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Domestic_violence#Psychological http://wost201h_domviol.tripod.com/groupactionproject/id4.html Suman Kakar Criminal Justice Approaches to Domestic Violence (1998). Rhoda Reddock Faith St Catherine http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/magazines/AllWoman/html/20061203T000000-0500_116180_OBS_CARIBBEAN_FACES_DOMESTIC_VIOLENCE_CHALLENGE_.asp Barbados Domestic Violence http://archive.nationnews.com/archive_results.php?mode=allwordsIncludeStories=1numPer=20start=0keyword=Domestic+ViolencesmartText
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
Adults with serious mental illness and children who have serious emotional problems are part of the mission for the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services AdministrationÃ¢â¬â¢s Center for Mental Health Services (CMHS). SAMHSA (substance abuse and mental health services administrationÃ¢â¬â¢s center for mental health services, according to their principles provides a national leadership forum that Ã¢â¬Å"improves quality and availability of treatment for the mentally ill, especially adults with serious illness and children with emotional disturbances.Ã¢â¬ They promote managed care systems in order to carry this out. This paper will compare the principles of this system with those of the IOM. SAMHSA promotes two major principles in care and those include quality of care and consumer participation and rights.In quality of care is included the need to treat all patients with respect and dignity, basing all decisions and treatments on best practice, developing delivery and data collection systems, ensuring that services are tailored to individual needs, established verification processes for credentials, providing a way for providers to resolve disputes, ensure a continuum of care, ensure a wrap around for children, and incorporate targeted prevention activities. Further, they have a set of principles which involve consumer rights and protection.Plan members should be involved in discerning care, respect should be shown for choice of service, necessary legal and ethical rights, education for all consumers, families, and supporting consumer rights, and ensuring confidentiality. Comparison with IOM In comparing this to the supportive beliefs of the IOM, the primary goals are quality of care and improvement if not doing away with the inequities of care in this country as well as the ideal of seamless service. These are very important factors in moving care from the treatment of illness to the prevention of illness.Allowing for a continuum of care as well as a stable base of care is important as well as the need to be able to have testing done that might provide prevention for diseases such as colon cancer. Mental health and community care is also strong in the quality principles that they have applied (IOM. edu). In fact many of the principles of the two areas are well matched. It appears that some of these principles will be seen in the new healthcare also, as it includes prevention as part of the mandatory insurance rules.For example, many people were unable to have a colonoscopy because of the cost or the copay that will not longer be so as preventative has no cost or copay if you have insurance. Treating Veterans with PTSD The new IOM as well as the SAMHSAC have principles that dictate treatment based on need, respect, and dignity. The new principles in both cases address serious mental illness which would certainly include PTSD. Veterans with mental illness are presently one of the disparity groups and these groups are the ones tha t the IOM is attempting to bring to attention at this time.This can only help this group of people. Conclusion The mental health issues in this country, among other very difficult health issues have been on the back burner for some time. With the advent of the new health program and support by these two agencies, there is hope that there will be improvement in this care. SLP Articles The articles chosen were Prevention best Medicine and Health Centers to get 250 million in grants. These two articles seemed to be collaborative articles in solving the same issues.Prevention best medicine by Emily Bregel (2010), states that there has been a history of delay in preventative care in the US. This is caused because of the expense of the tests, not covered by insurance or those that have costly co-pay. Under the new healthcare reform law, health insurance plans that begin on or after Sept. 23 must cover recommended preventive services and cannot charge patients co-payments or deductibles. T his causes a shift in the type of care that is given from coverage for illness to coverage for prevention of illness.Many of the larger insurance companies were interviewed and it was felt by most that this would not be a large difference in cost for them as it will decrease costs in the end. This whole change will be better quality care for the patient. Health Center to get $250 million in grants by Fears (2010) reviews the newer grants that are available for building community clinics in an effort to boost service. Of course, health centers across the country are lining up to get a piece of this money.Many of which got quite a large grant last time it was offered and because of growth need granted money again. The funding is available under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and is meant to establish medical homes for patients that at this time do not have them. These health centers have been the safety net for the uninsured to provide comprehensive medical care as wel l as pharmacy, mental health, substance abuse treatment, and dental care. This is a part of the continuum of care as well as a place to use the new prevention funds to stave off chronic illness.References Bregel, E. (2010). Prevention best medicine. Health. Fears D. (2010). Health Centers to get $250 million in grants to build clinics, boost services. Washington Post. Principles for Systems of Managed Care. National Mental Health Information Center, (2010) available at http://mentalhealth. samhsa. gov/ NLM Gateway. (2005). The evidence and recommendations of IOM report for achieving the 6 aims of quality in rural America. Academy Health22 (3876)
Sunday, November 10, 2019
Partner, Melody Nostalgic Records March 16, 2013 Proposal Number 014298B TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Company OverviewPage 4 2. Company Information SystemsPages 5-6 3. Table of Benefits & DrawbacksPage 8 4. Projected SalesPage 9 5. ReferencesPage10 COMPANY OVERVIEW Melody Nostalgic Records will have its grand opening on May 1, 2013. We are a small, brick nÃ¢â¬â¢ mortar, nostalgic record store located in downtown San Antonio, Texas. We will be providing a variety of music arrangements in the form of compact discs, vinyl records, cassette tapes, and 8 tracks.This will ensure we have products for all age ranges of customers. Along with music, we will also sell music products such as headphones, posters, t-shirts and other related items. In order to meet the needs of customers, we will need to have various information systems in place so we will be able to meet the needs of the customers as well as the needs of the company. Information Systems are integrated sets of components for collecting, storing, and processing data and for delivering information, knowledge, and digital products (Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc. Ã 2013). COMPANY INFORMATION SYSTEMS In order to ensure success in our business and customer satisfaction, utilization of the following five types of information systems will be conducted. * Functional Area IS * Executive Dashboard * Electronic Commerce System * Supply Chain Management System * Decision Support System COMPANY INFORMATION SYSTEMS Functional Area IS This system will support, plan and organize particular functional areas in our business.For example, this system will enable us to effectively conduct payroll and have an overview of sales management with cost and pricing analysis, inventory control, our overall spending and budget. With the information gathered, we will perform an evaluation of weekly, monthly, quarterly and annual reports. Executive Dashboard This is a tool for data management. It will allow us to identify operational efficiencies , apply preventative measures and recognize the health of our organization through a visual presentation of critical information.Through these reports we will be able to improve any processes that are lacking in our business (Ã¢â¬Å"Executive DashboardÃ¢â¬ , 2007). Electronic Commerce System A website of our products will be generated and correlated into our business to meet the needs of consumers who enjoy shopping from home and expanding our client base throughout the nation. This system will eventually allow us to increase our profits. COMPANY INFORMATION SYSTEMS Supply Chain Management System This will enable our company to monitor products, information and financial flow.This system will allow us to oversee our inventory and to also guarantee that we have enough products to meet the demand of our customers (Ã¢â¬Å"Supply Chain ManagementÃ¢â¬ ,2010). Decision Support System This will enable our managers and company to compile useful information from raw data, documents, pers onal knowledge, and/or business models to identify and solve problems and make decisions on comparative sales figures and projected revenue (Ã¢â¬Å"Decision Support SystemsÃ¢â¬ , 1996-2012). BENEFITS AND DRAWBACKS OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS Information System| Benefit| Drawback|Functional Area IS| Company Organization| Security and hacking issues| Executive Dashboard| Ability to produce reports from collected data| Requires person with extensive knowledge of Dashboard system| Electronic Commerce System| Ability to sell products online and expand clients| Possible online theft| Supply Chain Management| Ability to track inventory to ensure products are available on demand| Requires person with prior inventory record keeping | Decision Supports System| Ability to identify and solve problems| Identified problems may not always be accurate| Terms Expressed in Thousands REFERENCES Decision Support Systems. 1996-2012). Retrieved from http://www. informationbuilders. com/decision-support-syst ems-dss Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc.. (2013). Encyclopedia Britannica . Retrieved from http://www. britannica. com/EBchecked/topic/287895/information-system Executive Dashboard. (2007). Retrieved from http://www. iexecutivedashboard. com/ Rainer, R. K. & Cegielski, C. G. (2011). Introduction to Information systems: Supporting and Transforming Business. Chapter 2, Information Systems, Concepts and Management. Supply Chain Management. (2010). Retrieved from http://searchmanufacturingerp. techtarget. com/definition/supply-chain-management
Friday, November 8, 2019
Teach Reading With Word Families An emphasis on sounding out words with isolated phonemes often leads students to dread reading and think of decoding as some sort of mystical power. Children naturally look for patterns in things, so to make reading easier, teach them to search for predictable patterns in words. When a student knows the word cat, he can pick out the pattern with mat, sat, fat, etc.Ã Teaching patterns through word families- rhyming words- facilitates fluency, giving students more self-confidence and a willingness to use prior knowledge to decode new words. When students can recognize the patterns in word families, they can quickly write/name members of the family and use those patterns to nail down more words. Using Word Families Flash cards, and thrill and drill work to a certain extent, but providing your students with a variety of activities keeps them engaged and increases the likelihood that they will generalize the skills they acquire. Rather than using worksheets that can turn students with disabilities off (demanding the use of fine motor skills), try art projects and games to introduce word families. Art Projects Artistic word sorts with seasonal themes capture kids imaginations and use their enthusiasm for a favorite holiday to introduce and reinforce word families. Paper Bags and Word Families:Ã Print a variety of related words, then ask your students to cut them apart and put them in bags labeled with the corresponding word families. Turn them into trick or treat bags with crayons or cutouts (or buy some at the dollar store) and use them as a centerpiece in your classroom before Halloween.Ã Or draw Santas sack for Christmas, and label them with a word family. Then instruct students to sort words written on presents cut from construction paper into the appropriate sacks.Ã Art Project Sorts:Ã Draw or print Easter baskets and label each with a word family. Ask students to write associated words on Easter egg cutouts, then glue them to the corresponding basket. Display the word family baskets on the wall. Christmas Presents:Ã Wrap tissue boxes in Christmas paper, leaving the opening at the top exposed. Draw or print Christmas tree ornaments shapes and write words on each one. Ask the students to cut and decorate the ornaments, then drop them into the proper gift box. Games Games engage students, encourage them to interact appropriately with their peers, and give them an entertaining platform on which to build skills.Ã Build Bingo cards with words from a word family, then call out the words until someone fills all of their squares. Occasionally insert a word that doesnt belong in that particular family and see if your students can identify it. You can include a free space on the Bingo cards, but dont allow students to use it for a word that doesnt belong to that family. Word ladders use the same idea. Following the pattern of Bingo, a caller reads the words and the players cover steps on their word ladders. The first student to cover all of the words on the ladder wins.
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Water Properties and Facts You Should Know Water is the most abundant molecule on the Earths surface and one of the most important molecules to study in chemistry. The facts of water chemistry reveal why this is such an incredible molecule. What Is Water? Water is a chemical compound. Each molecule of water, H2O or HOH, consists of two atoms of hydrogen bonded to one atom of oxygen. Properties of Water There are several important properties of water that distinguish it from other molecules and make it the key compound for life: Cohesion is a key property of water. Because of the polarity of the molecules, water molecules are attracted to each other. Hydrogen bonds form between neighboring molecules. Because of its cohesiveness, water remains a liquid at normal temperatures rather than vaporizing into a gas. Cohesiveness also leads to high surface tension. An example of the surface tension is seen by beading of water on surfaces and by the ability of insects to walk on liquid water without sinking.Adhesion is another property of water. Adhesiveness is a measure of waters ability to attract other types of molecules. Water is adhesive to molecules capable of forming hydrogen bonds with it.Ã Adhesion and cohesion lead to capillary action, which is seen when the water rises up a narrow glass tube or within the stems of plants.The high specific heat and high heat of vaporization mean a lot of energy is needed to break hydrogen bonds between water molecules. Because of this, water resists extreme temperature cha nges. This is important for weather and also for species survival. The high heat of vaporization means evaporating water has a significant cooling effect. Many animals use perspiration to keep cool, taking advantage of this effect. Water is a polar molecule. Each molecule is bent, with the negatively charged oxygen on one side and the pair of positive-charged hydrogen molecules on the other side of the molecule.Water is the only common compound that exists in solid, liquid, and gas phase under ordinary, natural conditions.Water is amphoteric, which means it can act as both an acid and a base. Self-ionization of water produces H and OH- ions.Ice is less dense than liquid water. For most materials, the solid phase is denser than the liquid phase. Hydrogen bonds between water molecules are responsible for the lower density of ice. An important consequence is that lakes and rivers freeze from the top down, with ice floating on water.Pure liquid water at room temperature is odorless, tasteless, and nearly colorless. Water has a faint blue color, which becomes more apparent in large volumes of water.Water has the second highest specific enthalpy of fusion of all substances (after ammonia). The specific enthalpy of fu sion of water is 333.55 kJÃ ·kgÃ¢Ëâ1 at 0 Ã °C. Water has the second highest specific heat capacity of all known substances. Ammonia has the highest specific heat. Water also has a high heat of vaporization (40.65 kJÃ ·molÃ¢Ëâ1). The high specific heat and heat of vaporization result from the high degree of hydrogen bonding between water molecules. One consequence of this is that water is not subject to rapid temperature fluctuations. On Earth, this helps to prevent dramatic climate changes.Water may be called the universal solvent because it is able to dissolve many different substances. Interesting Water Facts Other names for water are dihydrogen monoxide, oxidane, hydroxylic acid, and hydrogen hydroxide.The molecular formula of water is H2OMolar mass: 18.01528(33) g/molDensity: 1000 kg/m3, liquid (4 Ã °C) or 917 kg/m3, solidMelting point: 0 Ã °C, 32 Ã °F (273.15 K)Boiling point: 100 Ã °C, 212 Ã °F (373.15 K)Acidity (pKa): 15.74Basicity (pKb): 15.74Refractive index: (nD) 1.3330Viscosity: 0.001 Pa s at 20 Ã °CCrystal structure: hexagonalMolecular shape: bent
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Production in the Long Run - Essay Example When it comes to marginal product, change in production is registered after the addition of capital employed. (Steinemann 11) This could be an added employee. The major point about the long run is that all the factors pertaining to production are assumed to be variable. The term Ã¢â¬ËReturns to ScaleÃ¢â¬â¢ is a term used to refer to the process by which a firms output, responds to change factors input. An example of this is as outlined in the table below; Labor Input Plant 1 Plant 2 Plant 3 Plant 4 10 40 100 130 150 20 100 120 150 173 30 120 140 175 199 40 130 170 200 231 50 150 190 230 260 Capital Input 10 20 30 40 Courtesy of (http://tutor2u.net/) From the above chart, Plant 1, business increases to 40 working with labor input 10 and capital input of 10. This demonstrates increase in returns to scale, resulting to a fall in the total cost of production. Generally, the scale of production can be increased or reduced. This is due to the variability of all factors. As a result, th e firm moves to new average cost curves. Every firm has an equivalent short run average cost curve, with the firmsÃ¢â¬â¢ expansion, it moves on to different short run average cost curves. Economies of scale result after the expanded scale output leads to a lower average cost for each level of output. The overhead costs relative to the running costs will probably be high in industries where big networks and national distribution are necessary. This leaves only little room for the company to exploit the returns of scale available in the market. When the cost disadvantage of operation is small, the companies/firms may operate at a profit. This also happens in price differentiation allowing small suppliers to sell their produce at premium price to the market average, on the advantage, willingness and ability for the consumers to pay high prices to cover the cost per unit. A high level of industry concentration is likely, where the minimum efficient scale of production is high as compa red to overall market demand. The time duration required for the long run id different from one sector to another. For example, in the nuclear power industry, it can take so many years to commission a new power plant or improve capacity. The law of diminishing marginal returns is the only critical difference between long run and short run (Tutor2u par 4). This law only applies to short run, which has a fixed output unlike the case of long run where itÃ¢â¬â¢s output are variable. Difference between the short and long run could differ depending on the period; some producers may operate at short run over a minimal period while others may operate at short run over a long time. Variability in the long run also applies to the quantity of capital. This means that, the company can not only adjust manpower in the industry but can also increase the size of the factory. For example, if the currently used factory is used beyond capacity, then a bigger one is constructed in the long run to acc ommodate more output. In the case where the factory has used space, it is possible to relocate to a smaller factory in the long run. The major concerns in the long run production, is how producers adjust the inputs under their control considering changes in prices. All production activities include input that is beyond the producerÃ¢â¬â¢s control. This includes the Government and its regulations, forces of nature, weather, and social customs and institutions. These variables are not
Friday, November 1, 2019
Optical systems - Essay Example This report also discusses the future prospects of this technology. As shown in figure 1, plastic optical fiber is huge central step-index fiber and its diameter is equal to 1 mm (millimeter). Hence, its huge size allows it to easily combine lots of light coming from various connectors and sources with less precision. In this scenario, the prices of standard connector are between 10% and 20% for glass fibers as well as closure is also as easy as cutting with a razor blade. In view of the fact that it is coated with the plastic so it makes it easy and rugged to install and connect deprived of fear of loss or damage. (The FOA, 2008; Paschotta, 2014) However, one of the major drawback of this media is that its performance is much lower than glass fiber. Additionally, its bandwidth is limited as well as it has a connection loss of approximately 0.15-0.2 dB per meter at 650 nm. On the other hand, it works fine when it is used for running short connection, for instance within a place for desktop connections up to 50 meters or inside of instruments. In this scenario, its most excellent usage is seen in automobile industry in which it has expanded a position with the innovative Flexray and MOST networks (The FOA, 2008; Paschotta, 2014). Its proven effectiveness for small distance connections make it an excellent choice for desktop LAN connections. For such connections, it can be installed in a few minutes with negligible training and tools. In future, it can be expected that its bandwidth will exceed to considerable level. However, its cost is reasonable as compared to copper. In fact, standards groups are currently looking at various choices for plastic fiber optics. It is believed that POF can be the following practical desktop connection (The FOA, 2008). Normally, the transmission is carried through fiber optic systems in the digital format. In other words, this transmission is sent and